Target-Site Mutations and Glutathione S-Transferases Are Associated with Acequinocyl and Pyridaben Resistance in the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a difficult-to-control pest due to its short life cycle and rapid resistance development. In this study, we characterized field strains collected in 2001 and 2003 that were selected for acequinocyl resistance (AR) and pyridaben resistance (PR), respectively. These strains displayed resistance ratios of 1798.6 (susceptible vs. AR) and 5555.6 (susceptible vs. PR), respectively, and were screened for cross-resistance against several currently used
... eral currently used acaricides. The AR strain exhibited pyridaben cross-resistance, but the PR strain showed no cross-resistance. The AR strain exhibited point mutations in cytb (I256V, N321S) and PSST (H92R). In contrast, the PR strain exhibited the H92R but not the I256V and N321S point mutations. In some cases increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity has previously been linked to enhanced detoxification. The AR strain exhibited approximately 2.3-, 1.8-, and 2.2-fold increased GST activity against 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), and 4-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), respectively. Among the five GST subclass genes (delta, omega, mu, zeta, and kappa), the relative expression of delta class GSTs in the AR strain were significantly higher than the PR and susceptible strain. These results suggest that the I256V and N321S mutations and the increased GST metabolism and GST delta overexpression might be related to acequinocyl resistance in T. urticae.