Advanced source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols by coupling offline AMS and radiocarbon size-segregated measurements over a nearly 2-year period

Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Benjamin Chazeau, Gary A. Salazar, Soenke Szidat, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Christoph Hueglin, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, André S. H. Prévôt
2018 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
<p><strong>Abstract.</strong> Carbonaceous aerosols are related to adverse human health effects. Therefore, identification of their sources and analysis of their chemical composition is important. The offline AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer) technique offers quantitative separation of organic aerosol (OA) factors which can be related to major OA sources, either primary or secondary. While primary OA can be more clearly separated into sources, secondary (SOA) source apportionment is more
more » ... nt is more challenging because different sources – anthropogenic or natural, fossil or non-fossil – can yield similar highly oxygenated mass spectra. Radiocarbon measurements provide unequivocal separation between fossil and non-fossil sources of carbon. Here we coupled these two offline methods and analysed the OA and organic carbon (OC) of different size fractions (particulate matter below 10 and 2.5<span class="thinspace"></span>µm – PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub>, respectively) from the Alpine valley of Magadino (Switzerland) during the years 2013 and 2014 (219 samples). The combination of the techniques gave further insight into the characteristics of secondary OC (SOC) which was rather based on the type of SOC precursor and not on the volatility or the oxidation state of OC, as typically considered. Out of the primary sources separated in this study, biomass burning OC was the dominant one in winter, with average concentrations of 5.36<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>2.64<span class="thinspace"></span>µg<span class="thinspace"></span>m<sup>−3</sup> for PM<sub>10</sub> and 3.83<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>1.81<span class="thinspace"></span>µg<span class="thinspace"></span>m<sup>−3</sup> for PM<sub>2.5</sub>, indicating that wood combustion particles were predominantly generated in the fine mode. The additional information from the size-segregated measurements revealed a primary sulfur-containing factor, mainly fossil, detected in the coarse size fraction and related to non-exhaust traffic emissions with a yearly average PM<sub>10</sub> (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) concentration of 0.20<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>0.24<span class="thinspace"></span>µg<span class="thinspace"></span>m<sup>−3</sup> (0.05<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>0.04<span class="thinspace"></span>µg<span class="thinspace"></span>m<sup>−3</sup>). A primary biological OC (PBOC) was also detected in the coarse mode peaking in spring and summer with a yearly average PM<sub>10</sub> (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) concentration of 0.79<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>0.31<span class="thinspace"></span>µg<span class="thinspace"></span>m<sup>−3</sup> (0.24<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>0.20<span class="thinspace"></span>µg<span class="thinspace"></span>m<sup>−3</sup>). The secondary OC was separated into two oxygenated, non-fossil OC factors which were identified based on their seasonal variability (i.e. summer and winter oxygenated organic carbon, OOC) and a third anthropogenic OOC factor which correlated with fossil OC mainly peaking in winter and spring, contributing on average 13<span class="thinspace"></span>%<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>7<span class="thinspace"></span>% (10<span class="thinspace"></span>%<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>9<span class="thinspace"></span>%) to the total OC in PM<sub>10</sub> (PM<sub>2.5</sub>). The winter OOC was also connected to anthropogenic sources, contributing on average 13<span class="thinspace"></span>%<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>13<span class="thinspace"></span>% (6<span class="thinspace"></span>%<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>6<span class="thinspace"></span>%) to the total OC in PM<sub>10</sub> (PM<sub>2.5</sub>). The summer OOC (SOOC), stemming from oxidation of biogenic emissions, was more pronounced in the fine mode, contributing on average 43<span class="thinspace"></span>%<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>12<span class="thinspace"></span>% (75<span class="thinspace"></span>%<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>44<span class="thinspace"></span>%) to the total OC in PM<sub>10</sub> (PM<sub>2.5</sub>). In total the non-fossil OC significantly dominated the fossil OC throughout all seasons, by contributing on average 75<span class="thinspace"></span>%<span class="thinspace"></span>±<span class="thinspace"></span>24<span class="thinspace"></span>% to the total OC. The results also suggested that during the cold period the prevailing source was residential biomass burning while during the warm period primary biological sources and secondary organic aerosol from the oxidation of biogenic emissions became important. However, SOC was also formed by aged fossil fuel combustion emissions not only in summer but also during the rest of the year.</p>
doi:10.5194/acp-18-6187-2018 fatcat:vmbodkysj5f73e7mp3ig4iqcna