Novel role of PKR in inflammasome activation and HMGB1 release

Peter Lundbäck, Kevin J. Tracey, Yongrui Zou, Haichao Wang, Ulf Andersson, Yiting Tang, Helena Erlandsson-Harris, Thomas Kalb, Jesse Roth, Karen Inouye, Jianhua Li, Huan Yang (+8 others)
The inflammasome regulates release of caspase activation-dependent cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)1-5. During the course of studying HMGB1 release mechanisms, we discovered an important role of double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR) in inflammasome activation. Exposure of macrophages to inflammasome agonists induced PKR autophosphorylation. PKR inactivation by genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition severely impaired inflammasome
more » ... tion in response to double-stranded RNA, ATP, monosodium urate, adjuvant aluminum, rotenone, live E. coli, anthrax lethal toxin, DNA transfection, and S. Typhimurium infection. PKR deficiency significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-18 and HMGB1 in E. coli-induced peritonitis. PKR physically interacts with multiple inflammasome components, including NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), NLR family pyrin domain-containing 1 (NLRP1), NLR family CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4), Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and broadly regulates inflammasome activation. PKR autophosphorylation in a cell free system with recombinant NLRP3, ASC and pro-casapse-1 reconstitutes inflammasome activity. These results reveal a critical role of PKR in inflammasome activation, and indicate that it should be possible to pharmacologically target this molecule to treat inflammation.
doi:10.17615/67nw-xh76 fatcat:3g3i2pzaubchdpzpgy3vmyjvqq