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The importance of guaranteed end-to-end quality of service (QoS) increases as business-to-business (B2B) interactions become increasingly sophisticated, lengthy, and involve more sites. In particular, support for transparent failovers is often required, even if failures occur in more than one tier at the same time. One of the obstacles in achieving a transparent failover is determining the status of outstanding operations, some of which span several tiers. Aid from neighboring tiers is oftendoi:10.1023/b:supe.0000014802.46613.8c fatcat:vh7zcnjuxfaxznbq4rkvvwstzi