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Backward erosion piping (BEP) is a type of internal erosion that typically involves the erosion of foundation materials beneath an embankment. BEP has been shown, historically, to be the cause of approximately one third of all internal erosion related failures. As such, the probability of BEP is commonly evaluated as part of routine risk assessments for dams and levees in the United States. Currently, average gradient methods are predominantly used to perform these assessments, supported bydoi:10.1051/e3sconf/20160703007 fatcat:73kkptbzcbe4fazgxw2ufkomgq