The virgin forests of the Synevyr National Nature Park, Ukraine: its current condition and biodiversity

Pavlo M. Ustymenko, Dmytro V. Dubyna, Denys A. Davydov
2022 Environmental & Socio-economic Studies  
Among the protected sites of the Eastern Carpathians, the Synevyr National Nature Park (NNP) in the Zakarpattia region of Ukraine is one of the most valuable and was created to preserve its unique mountain beech and spruce forest communities. The importance of the conservation of typical natural virgin forest ecosystems of the Central European mountain systemis emphasized. The aim of this article was to determine the state of the naturalness of virgin forests in the territory of Synevyr NNP, to
more » ... analyse their syntaxonomy, and to establish the floristic and geobotanical characteristics of its virgin forests and to distinguish the existing biodiversity threats. It was established that the studied plots of beech and spruce forests within the territory of the Synevyr NNP have a distinct virgin nature based on their structure, forest valuation parameters, spontaneous dynamics and other features. Syntaxonomically the virgin forests of the park belong to two associations: Symphyto cordati-Fagetum Vida (1959) 1963 (alliance Fagion sylvaticae Luquet 1926, order Fagetalia sylvaticae Pawłowski 1928, class Сarpino-Fagetea sylvaticae Jakucs ex Passarge 1968) and Luzulo luzuloidis-Fagetum (Du Rietz 1923) Markgraf 1932 (alliance Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae Lohmeyer & Tx. in Tx. 1954, order Luzulo-Fagetalia Scamoni & Passarge 1959, class Quercetea roboripetraeae Br.-Bl. & Tx. ex Oberd. 1957). The natural and anthropogenic biodiversity threats of these virgin forests are summarized. The results of the research formed the basis for the inclusion of the beech virgin forests of Synevyr NNP as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the list of objects on "Beech virgin forests and ancient forests of the Carpathians and other regions of Europe".
doi:10.2478/environ-2022-0020 fatcat:eshob4yuyjc3tatjhqavkh6wdm