Farmacoterapia de la deshabituación alcohólica. Nuevos fármacos, nuevos conceptos

M. Balcells, Antoni Gual
2002 Adicciones  
This chapter provides an overview of the data supporting the role for pharmacotherapy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Drugs acting on several brain neurotransmitters systems including dopamine, serotonin, GABA, glutamic acid and opioid systems are under investigation. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs most commonly used during the rehabilitation period. Disulfiram seems to be effective mostly when given under supervision. In the case of acamprosate and naltrexone, the
more » ... and naltrexone, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been fully established, even though there's evidence that acamprosate acts on the NMDAglutamate system, while naltrexone seems to act on the reward system through the endogenous opioids. Also, the clinical profile of patients who might benefit the most from each of those drugs is still unknown. Drugs acting on dopaminergic mechanisms (tiapride, bromocriptin, flupenthixol), serotonergic mechanisms (buspirone, SSIR, ondansetron, buspiron) and γ-hidroxibutyric acid, have been studied in clinical trials but have not shown sufficient evidence to be approved to treat alcohol dependence. Further research with drug combinations has also been conducted, but results are not conclusive.
doi:10.20882/adicciones.537 fatcat:faxvt64cknhcxj3nnaavevgdyy