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This study tested whether compassionate goals to support others and self-image goals to maintain and defend desired self-images: 1) are equivalent constructs across three cultures (U.S., Japan, Poland); 2) overlap with interdependent self-construal; and 3) predict relationships and growth measures similarly in each country. We re-analyzed data from American (n = 130) and Japanese (n = 203) students, reported in Niiya et al. (2013), along with new data from Poland (n = 246). Single and multipledoi:10.1515/ppb-2015-0058 fatcat:jqoqcsz7mrbolcjnt3tgzttgby