Preoperative risk factors influencing inter-stage mortality after the Norwood procedure
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
With improvements in early survival after the stage I palliation (S1P) Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and its variants, inter-stage death accounts for an increasing proportion of mortality. Our aim was to identify the risk factors for inter-stage mortality. The records of 322 neonates with HLHS or a variant who underwent the Norwood procedure at our centre between 2001 and 2019 were retrospectively analysed. The diagnoses included 271 neonates with HLHS (84%) and
... th HLHS (84%) and 51 with variants (16%). Aortic atresia was observed in 138 (43%) patients, mitral atresia in 91 (28%), extracardiac anomalies in 42 (13%) and genetic disorder in 14 (4%). The median age and weight of the patients at the S1P Norwood procedure were 9 (interquartile range: 7-12) days and 3.2 (2.9-3.5) kg, respectively. The median cardiopulmonary bypass time was 137 (107-163) min. Modified Blalock-Taussig shunts were used in 159 (49%) and unvalved right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunts in 163 (51%) patients. The number of inter-stage deaths was as follows: between S1P and stage II palliation (S2P), 61 including 38 early (<30 days) and 23 late (>30 days) deaths, and between S2P and stage III palliation, 32 deaths. Low birth weight (<2.5 kg) (odds ratio 4.37, P = 0.020) and restrictive atrial septum (odds ratio 2.97, P = 0.013) were identified as risks for early mortality. Low birth weight [hazard ratio (HR) 0.99/g, P = 0.002] was a risk for inter-stage mortality between S1P and S2P. Extracardiac anomalies (HR 4.75, P = 0.049) and significant pre-S1P atrioventricular valve regurgitation (HR: 7.72, P = 0.016) were risks for inter-stage mortality between S2P and stage III palliation. Other anatomical variables including aortic atresia, anatomical subtypes and the diameter of the ascending aorta nor shunt type were not identified as risk factors for mortality during any inter-stage period. The risk factors for inter-stage attrition after the Norwood procedure were different between each stage. Preoperative factors, including birth weight, restrictive atrial septum and extracardiac anomalies, adversely affected the inter-stage mortality.