A Defense Framework for Privacy Risks in Remote Machine Learning Service

Yang Bai, Yu Li, Mingchuang Xie, Mingyu Fan, Jiang Ming
2021 Security and Communication Networks  
In recent years, machine learning approaches have been widely adopted for many applications, including classification. Machine learning models deal with collective sensitive data usually trained in a remote public cloud server, for instance, machine learning as a service (MLaaS) system. In this scene, users upload their local data and utilize the computation capability to train models, or users directly access models trained by MLaaS. Unfortunately, recent works reveal that the curious server
more » ... hat trains the model with users' sensitive local data and is curious to know the information about individuals) and the malicious MLaaS user (who abused to query from the MLaaS system) will cause privacy risks. The adversarial method as one of typical mitigation has been studied by several recent works. However, most of them focus on the privacy-preserving against the malicious user; in other words, they commonly consider the data owner and the model provider as one role. Under this assumption, the privacy leakage risks from the curious server are neglected. Differential privacy methods can defend against privacy threats from both the curious sever and the malicious MLaaS user by directly adding noise to the training data. Nonetheless, the differential privacy method will decrease the classification accuracy of the target model heavily. In this work, we propose a generic privacy-preserving framework based on the adversarial method to defend both the curious server and the malicious MLaaS user. The framework can adapt with several adversarial algorithms to generate adversarial examples directly with data owners' original data. By doing so, sensitive information about the original data is hidden. Then, we explore the constraint conditions of this framework which help us to find the balance between privacy protection and the model utility. The experiments' results show that our defense framework with the AdvGAN method is effective against MIA and our defense framework with the FGSM method can protect the sensitive data from direct content exposed attacks. In addition, our method can achieve better privacy and utility balance compared to the existing method.
doi:10.1155/2021/9924684 fatcat:fqanrrvdcrf3feqomhdwkezxwy