Knowledge Representation, Sharing, and Retrieval on the Web [chapter]

Philippe Martin
2003 Web Intelligence  
By "knowledge retrieval", we refer to the automatic retrieval of statements permitting a tool to make logical inferences and answer queries precisely and correctly, as opposed to retrieving documents or statements "related to" the queries. Given the ambiguity of natural language and our current inability to make computers "understand" it, the knowledge has to be manually encoded and structured using a formal graphic/textual language and ontologies (structured catalogs of categories and
more » ... d constraints of use). The Web currently contains a lot of data, more and more structured data (databases, structured documents) and simple metadata but very little knowledge as defined above, i.e. very few knowledge representations. Moreover, this knowledge has been encoded using various languages and unconnected or loosely connected ontologies, and following different representation conventions. Hence, currently, not only knowledge sources are rare but each require the development of a special wrapper for their knowledge to be interpreted and hence retrieved, combined or exploited. This article reviews various projects concerning knowledge representation, sharing and retrieval on the Web, then details requirements for a "Semantic Web" and illustrates them with notations, conventions and cooperation rules from our own tool, WebKB-2. Knowledge retrieval mechanisms and interfaces used in WebKB-2 are also given as illustrations. Table of Content 1 Although describing the same facts as we do, some researchers unfortunately use the words "knowledge" instead of "data" and "ontology" instead of "knowledge", as in [3]: "The WWW can be viewed as the largest knowledge base that has ever existed. However, its support in query answering and automated inference is very limited". The terms we use are chosen to be quite unambiguous for a member of the knowledge acquisition/representation community, and their meanings are consistent with the ones given in the "free on-line dictionary of computing" at http://foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/ 2
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-05320-1_12 fatcat:36qmtgmotvgwlmh5btmieknxve