Knowledge of chronic complications of diabetes among persons living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Ghana
Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease that affects many organ systems, leading to concerns about deteriorating population health status and ever-increasing healthcare expenditure. Many people with diabetes do not achieve optimal glycaemic control and other metabolic indices, leading to a heightened risk of developing complications. Adequate knowledge of diabetes complications is a prerequisite for risk-factor reduction and prevention of the consequences of the disease. Therefore, this study
... fore, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of chronic complications of diabetes among persons living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Ghana. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Ghana. The consecutive sampling technique was employed to recruit participants from September to November 2018. Data analysis was performed using IBM statistical package for social science version 23. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were employed to determine associations between knowledge of diabetes complications and demographic/clinical characteristics of participants, at 95% confidence interval with statistical significance at P<0.05. The majority of participants (54.1%) had inadequate knowledge and 45.9% had adequate knowledge of diabetes complications. The factors associated with inadequate level of knowledge were female gender [AOR = 0.29 (95%CI: 0.14-0.56), p<0.001], older age [AOR = 0.45 (95%CI:0.20-0.99), p = 0.049], primary education [AOR = 0.13 (95%CI: 0.03-0.51), p = 0.004], no formal education [AOR = 0.16 (95%CI: 0.05-0.50), p = 0.002], rural dwellers [AOR = 0.50 (95%CI: 0.27-0.95), p = 0.033] and unknown family history diabetes [AOR = 0.38 (95%CI: 0.17-0.82), p = 0.014]. More than half of the studied population had inadequate knowledge of diabetes complications. Female gender, rural dwellers, and low education level were factors positively associated with inadequate knowledge of diabetes complications. A multisectoral approach is needed, where the government of Ghana together with other sectors of the economy such as the health, education and local government sectors work collaboratively in the development of locally tailored diabetes education programmes to promote healthy self-care behaviours relevant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications.