A Comparative Study on Objectives and Components of Reading Skill in National Curriculum of Iran and America (New Jersey) at High School
International Journal of Languages' Education and Teaching
This study aims to provide a preliminary of the codification of the objectives and components of teaching reading within the National Language curriculum in upper secondary in correlation with elementary and lower secondary curriculums. The data includes the Persian Language curriculum in Iranian upper secondary schools (version 2007) and American core curriculum for Language Arts (in New Jersey, 2004) collected through library study and note taking from Iran and foreign documents. The data
... ments. The data have been analyzed qualitatively (through grounded theory method) at the secondary level. In the present research, objectives and components of teaching reading within the curriculums of mentioned countries are analyzed and surveyed based on Autonomous and Ideological approaches to literacy; suggesting that objectives and components of American curriculum for teaching reading are formularized and influenced by Ideological approach, whereas Iranian reading curriculum owns the features of Autonomous Approach (consciously or unconsciously) and features related to Ideological approach are negligible in Iran. After discussing characteristics of curriculums in America (New Jersey), influenced by the Ideological approach to literacy, the merits and demerits of objectives and components of Iranian curriculum for teaching reading and some proposals to refine have been cited. national languages is Persian that Iranian students are required to recognize the features and systematic body of the language methodically and scientifically in order to boost the ability to write and create masterpieces.To achieve this goal, subsequent to planning and compilation of Persian books in the lower secondary course (in 2007), revision and modification of them (in summer 2008), the planning and compilation of Persian books council in the modern pedagogical system for upper secondary course formed and this led into setting out "Persian language and literature syllabus" in 9 chapters. The third chapter explains the objectives and educating the course; also, it puts up the objectives in 3 scopes; recognition, versatility, and sentimental domains. Persian language and literature books structures display that reading skill is slightly concerned because Authorities and experts of Iranian national curriculum in Literature group think of reading as a skill that is taught once and for all in the first few years of school and it is a simple process. Seen this way, readers decode (figure out how to pronounce) each word in a text and then automatically comprehend the meaning of the words, as they do with their everyday spoken language. This understanding of reading is not acceptable. Within the framework of this curriculum, reading is something that is taken for granted, as there is no obvious definition for it and also its sub-skills are not introduced. The lack of a conceptual framework for this language arts leads to ambiguous and inconsistent educational objectives for different grades at this educational level. Within the framework of "a guide to Farsi curriculum for secondary level", reading skill is not instructed in proportionate with context. Also, it is not instructed critically, and if formally considered, there is no operational definition for it. Also, reading instruction is not planned based on the information and communication technology. Gaining the highest ranks in literacy in International Competitions-the United States obtained 9 th grade in (such as PIRLS, 2001)-,having a comprehensive national language curriculum of New Jersey in terms of quantity and quality and availability of its Language Curriculum have been some of the reasons to choose America's curriculum as a sample in order to improve the Persian syllabus in high schools and expand the teachers' and planners' views on the objectives and training components in Iranian language syllabus. The present study follows the following objectives: To study the objectives and training components in national language Reading syllabus in American high schools; To study the objectives and training components in national language Reading syllabus in Iranian high schools; To study the objectives and training components in national language Reading syllabus in Iranian high schools; To develop planners' and teachers' point views on language learning components and objectives And To examine the hypothesis under question, these research questions were proposed: What are the objectives and training components in national language Reading syllabus in Iranian high schools? What are objectives and training components in national language Reading syllabus in American high schools? What are the similarities and dissimilarities between the objectives and education components in national language Reading syllabus in American and Iranian high schools?