Analysis of the latitudinal variability of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic using the large number of aircraft and ozonesonde observations in early summer 2008
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions
The goal of the paper are to: (1) present tropospheric ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) climatologies in summer 2008 based on a large amount of measurements, during the International Polar Year when the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements, and Models of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) campaigns were conducted (2) investigate the processes that determine O<sub>3</sub> concentrations in two different regions (Canada and Greenland) that were thoroughly
... re thoroughly studied using measurements from 3 aircraft and 7 ozonesonde stations. This paper provides an integrated analysis of these observations and the discussion of the latitudinal and vertical variability of tropospheric ozone north of 55&deg; N during this period is performed using a regional model (WFR-Chem). Ozone, CO and potential vorticity (PV) distributions are extracted from the simulation at the measurement locations. The model is able to reproduce the O<sub>3</sub> latitudinal and vertical variability but a negative O<sub>3</sub> bias of 6&ndash;15 ppbv is found in the free troposphere over 4 km, especially over Canada. <br><br> Ozone average concentrations are of the order of 65 ppbv at altitudes above 4 km both over Canada and Greenland, while they are less than 50 ppbv in the lower troposphere. The relative influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and of ozone production related to the local biomass burning (BB) emissions is discussed using differences between average values of O<sub>3</sub>, CO and PV for Southern and Northern Canada or Greenland and two vertical ranges in the troposphere: 0&ndash;4 km and 4&ndash;8 km. For Canada, the model CO distribution and the weak correlation (< 30 %) of O<sub>3</sub> and PV suggests that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is not the major contribution to average tropospheric ozone at latitudes less than 70&deg; N, due to the fact that local biomass burning (BB) emissions were significant during the 2008 summer period. Conversely over Greenland, significant STE is found according to the better O<sub>3</sub> versus PV correlation (> 40 %) and the higher 75th PV percentile. <br><br> A weak negative latitudinal summer ozone gradient &minus;6 to &minus;8 ppbv is found over Canada in the mid troposphere between 4 and 8 km. This is attributed to an efficient O<sub>3</sub> photochemical production due to the BB emissions at latitudes less than 65&deg; N, while STE contribution is more homogeneous in the latitude range 55&deg; N to 70&deg; N. A positive ozone latitudinal gradient of 12 ppbv is observed in the same altitude range over Greenland not because of an increasing latitudinal influence of STE, but because of different long range transport from multiple mid-latitude sources (North America, Europe and even Asia for latitudes higher than 77&deg; N).