Review of energy system flexibility measures to enable high levels of variable renewable electricity
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
2015). Review of energy system flexibility measures to enable high levels of variable renewable electricity. RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, 45, 785-807. Abstract The paper reviews different approaches, technologies, and strategies to manage large-scale schemes of variable renewable electricity such as solar and wind power. We consider both supply and demand side measures. In addition to presenting energy system flexibility measures, their importance to renewable electricity is
... ed. The flexibility measures available range from traditional ones such as grid extension or pumped hydro storage to more advanced strategies such as demand side management and demand side linked approaches, e.g. the use of electric vehicles for storing excess electricity, but also providing grid support services. Advanced batteries may offer new solutions in the future, though the high costs associated with batteries may restrict their use to smaller scale applications. Different -P2Y‖-type of strategies, where P stands for surplus renewable power and Y for the energy form or energy service to which this excess in converted to, e.g. thermal energy, hydrogen, gas or mobility are receiving much attention as potential flexibility solutions, making use of the energy system as a whole. To -functionalize‖ or to assess the value of the various energy system flexibility measures, these need often be put into an electricity/energy market or utility service context. Summarizing, the outlook for managing large amounts of RE power in terms of options available seems to be promising. There is a range of different approaches for increasing energy system flexibility, ranging from supply to demand side measures. Sometimes more flexibility could be accomplished through simply strengthening the power grid, enabling e.g. better spatial smoothing  . Recently, energy storage technologies have received much attention, in particular distributed and end-use side storage    . Storage would be useful with RE power  , but it is often perceived somewhat optimistically as a generic solution to increasing flexibility, underestimating the scale in energy  . Different types of systemic innovations, e.g. considering the energy system as a whole and integrating power and thermal (heating/cooling) energy systems together, could considerably improve the integration of large-scale RE schemes [19, 20] . The concept Smart Grid involves a range of different energy technologies and ICT to better manage the power systems and increase their flexibility . Many other options are available as well.