O.A. Toropov, D.S. Avetikov, K.P. Lokes, D.V. Steblovskyi, V.M. Skrypnyk, R.A. Prykhidko
2020 Ukraïnsʹkij stomatologìčnij alʹmanah  
As the trend to look beautiful is growing, so does the number of patients seeking reconstructive and aesthetic facial surgery, which leads to the rapid development of this field. To date, there exists a large number of techniques to eliminate a scar deformity, but none of them guarantees the optimal cosmetic effect. The purpose of the study. The study aims to search for and analyze scientific sources related to the prevention of pathological scars in Ukraine and the world. Materials and methods
more » ... terials and methods of research. To study the research materials, the bibliosemantic and analytical methods have been applied to process literature data, as well as research materials posted on the Internet. Skin is the largest human organ whose total surface area ranges from 1.7 to 2.6 m2 and can vary depending on height and weight. It acts as the main protective barrier from the environment. Violation of this barrier after injury, burns, or surgical resection can lead to chronic wounds and scars that affect patients physically and emotionally. Therefore, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying wound healing can potentially improve the lives of such people, as well as stimulate the development of new prevention and treatment methods. All wounds, except for surgical ones, are initially considered to be infected. Microorganisms get into the wound along with the damaging object, soil, pieces of clothing, air, and during hand touching. Once in the wound, microorganisms can cause suppuration and complications such as erysipelas. The most dangerous way for the microorganisms to enter the wound is in the absence of air which can cause anaerobic infection (gas gangrene). Another dangerous wound complication is a tetanus infection. For its prevention, all contaminated wounds (especially, by soil) should be treated with anti-tetanus toxoid or anti-tetanus serum. Thus, wound healing is one of the most difficult processes in the human body. It includes spatial and temporal synchronization of different cell types with different roles in the phases of hemostasis, inflammation, growth, reepithelialization, and remodeling. With the development of technology, it became possible to detect the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of cell types. Discovering the role of each of these cell types and their interaction with each other is important for understanding the mechanisms of wound regeneration. The scar (Cicatrix) is a secondary morphological element of the skin, which is formed when it is damaged, and especially when the reticular dermis is damaged. Laser therapy is used to prevent scarring, but the evidence for the effectiveness of laser treatment of surgical and hypertrophic scars, as well as keloids is somewhat insufficient, but generally suggests promising results. Multiple studies report a significant scar thickness improvement when applying the right program. Conclusion. Based on the bibliosemantic and analytical methods applied to process literature data, we believe that the study of intra- and postoperative prevention of pathological scars at different stages of their formation remains a topical issue and needs further study.
doi:10.31718/2409-0255.2.2020.12 fatcat:uri6ypvdanerjd5n6vovhdl7fa