Evaluation of renal vascular variations with computed tomography
African Journal of Urology
Background It is important to know the renal vascular variations before renal surgeries and invasive procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and types of variation of renal arteries and veins. Methods The abdominal CT images of 460 patients, taken between 2019 and 2021, were retrospectively analyzed in axial and coronal planes. The presence and number of accessory renal arteries and early branching in the main renal artery were evaluated. Then, bilateral renal vein
... ions were investigated. Finally, the compression of the left renal vein by different anatomical structures was evaluated. Results Of the 450 patients included in the study, the mean age was 53 years. No variations were detected in 378 renal arteries on the right side (84%) and 392 renal arteries on the left side (87.1%). The most common variation in renal arteries was an accessory inferior hilar artery in 7.5% and 6% rates on the right and left, respectively. An accessory inferior renal polar artery was observed at an overall rate of 1.3%. An accessory superior renal hilar artery was found at 3.3% and 2% rates on the left and the right, respectively. An accessory superior renal polar artery was found at an overall rate of 3.5%. Multiple variations in the renal arteries were observed at a rate of 6.4%. Early branching was observed at a rate of 4.9% on the right and 2.2% on the left. The presence of two and three right renal veins was observed at rates of 13.1% and 0.6%, respectively. Retroaortic and circumaortic left renal veins were found at 3.5% and 4.4% rates, respectively. The compression on the anterior and posterior left renal veins was observed at 4.6% and 0.9% rates, respectively. Conclusion Considering that variations in renal arteries and veins are too many and of different types to underestimate, a CT examination for the renal vascular anatomy before and at the planning phase of renal surgery or interventional procedures will be of great benefit to avoid potential complications.