Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease and diabetic kidney disease in a central Chinese urban population: a cross-sectional survey
This study was conducted to evaluate and update the current prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in a China. Methods A total of 5231 participants were randomly recruited for this study. CKD and DKD were defined according to the combination of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), presence of albuminuria and diabetes. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing lifestyle and relevant medical history, and blood and urinary
... blood and urinary specimens were taken. Serum creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and urinary albumin were assessed. The age-and gender-adjusted prevalences of CKD and DKD were calculated, and risk factors associated with the presence of reduced eGFR, albuminuria, DKD, severity of albuminuria and progression of reduce renal function were analyzed by binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results The overall adjusted prevalence of CKD was 16.8% (15.8 -17.8%) and that of DKD was 3.5% (3.0 -4.0%). Decreased renal function was detected in 132 participants 2.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5 -3.2%, whereas albuminuria was found in 858 participants (14.9%, 95% CI: 13.9 -15.9%). In all participants with diabetes, the prevalence of reduced eGFR was 6.3% (95% CI = 3.9 -8.6%) and that of albuminuria was 45.3% (95% CI = 40.4 -50.1%). The overall prevalence of CKD in participants with diabetes was 48.0% (95% CI = 43.1 -52.9%). The results of the binary and ordinal logistic regression indicated that factors independently associated with higher risk of reduced eGFR and albuminuria were older age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia. Conclusions Our study shows the current prevalences of CKD and DKD in residents of Central China. The high prevalence suggests an urgent need to implement interventions to relieve the high burden of CKD and DKD in China.