Misreporting of energy: prevalence, characteristics of misreporters and influence on observed risk estimates in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort
British Journal of Nutrition
The present study investigates the prevalence of misreporting of energy in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, and examines anthropometric, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics of the misreporters. Further, the influence of excluding misreporters on risk estimates of post-menopausal breast cancer was examined. Information of reported energy intake (EI) was obtained from a modified diet history method. A questionnaire provided information on lifestyle and socio-economic characteristics.
... characteristics. Individual physical activity level (PAL) was calculated from self-reported information on physical activity at work, leisure time physical activity and household work, and from estimates of hours of sleeping, self-care and passive time. Energy misreporting was defined as having a ratio of EI to BMR outside the 95 % CI limits of the calculated PAL. Logistic regression analysed the risk of being a low-energy reporter or a high-energy reporter. Almost 18 % of the women and 12 % of the men were classified as low-energy reporters, 2·8 % of the women and 3·5 % of the men were classified as high-energy reporters. In both genders high BMI, large waist circumference, short education and being a blue-collar worker were significantly associated with low-energy reporting. High-energy reporting was significantly associated with low BMI, living alone and current smoking. The results add support to the practice of energy adjustment as a means to reduce the influence of errors in risk assessment. Energy: Misreporting: Physical activity level * Corresponding author: Dr Irene Mattisson, Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, UMAS, entrance 59, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden, fax þ46 40 336215, email firstname.lastname@example.org Abbreviations: AER, adequate-energy reporting; EE, energy expenditure; EI, reported energy intake; HER, high-energy reporting; LER, low-energy reporting; MDC, Malmö Diet and Cancer; MET, ratio of work metabolic rate to resting metabolic rate; PAL, physical activity level.