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Sodium smectite clay, commercially available in the form of bentonite powder, serves as a very effective water flow barrier and cation exchanger. At bulk densities between 1·9 and 2·2 g/cm3 after water uptake to reach complete saturation, the hydraulic conductivity is of the order of 10−14 to 10−13 m/s. The swelling potential produces a tight contact with confining structures, which makes bentonite ideal as overpack of rock-deposited radioactive canisters and for borehole and shaft sealing. Atdoi:10.1180/claymin.1992.027.3.08 fatcat:hrarf4b5nbeljik6g6vpxaqm7e