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Engineering sustainable cyber-physical-social systems demand a transdisciplinary approach. Within an arbitrary domain, many systems, including those of the physical and cyber categories, may already be in-situ; however, heterogeneity permeates such systems, for example, differing protocols, data formats, among others. Heterogeneity is not a deliberate feature of an arbitrary system; rather, it is the cumulative result of pragmatic decisions that were made during design and is driven by manydoi:10.4018/ijaeis.20210101.oa6 fatcat:jbpazsacdnhnhaives5zygm2oq