Polyelectrolyte Based Sensors as Key to Achieve Quantitative Electronic Tongues: Detection of Triclosan on Aqueous Environmental Matrices
Triclosan (TCS) is a bacteriostatic used in household items that promotes antimicrobial resistance and endocrine disruption effects both to humans and biota, raising health concerns. In this sense, new devices for its continuous monitoring in complex matrices are needed. In this work, sensors, based on polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) films prepared onto gold interdigitated electrodes (IDE), were studied. An electronic tongue array, composed of (polyethyleneimine (PEI)/polysodium
... lysodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS))5 and (poly(allylamine hydrochloride/graphene oxide)5 LbL films together with gold IDE without coating were used to detect TCS concentrations (10−15–10−5 M). Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used as means of transduction and the obtained data was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The electronic tongue was tested in deionized water, mineral water and wastewater matrices showing its ability to (1) distinguish between TCS doped and non-doped solutions and (2) sort out the TCS range of concentrations. Regarding film stability, strong polyelectrolytes, as (PEI/PSS)n, presented more firmness and no significant desorption when immersed in wastewater. Finally, the PCA data of gold IDE and (PEI/PSS)5 sensors, for the mineral water and wastewater matrices, respectively, showed the ability to distinguish both matrices. A sensitivity value of 0.19 ± 0.02 per decade to TCS concentration and a resolution of 0.13 pM were found through the PCA second principal component.