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The efficacy of Krylov subspace solvers is strongly dependent on the preconditioner applied to solve the large sparse linear systems of equation for electromagnetic problems. In this study, we present a three-dimensional (3-D) plane wave electromagnetic forward simulation over a broadband frequency range. The Maxwell's equation is solved in a secondary formulation of the Lorentz gauge coupled-potential technique. A finite-volume scheme is employed for discretizing the system of equations on adoi:10.3390/app9071328 fatcat:sye36cwzpjhyloymelf75cq3nm