Diagnostic Value of Next-Generation Sequencing to Detect Periprosthetic Joint Infection
Background We herein compared the diagnostic value of next-generation sequencing (NGS), bacterial culture, and serological biomarkers to detect periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after joint replacement. Methods According to the diagnostic criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society, 35 patients who underwent joint revision surgery were divided into infection (15 cases) and non-infection (20 cases) groups, and were routinely examined preoperatively for erythrocyte sedimentation rate
... imentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and D-dimer levels. All patients underwent arthrocentesis preoperatively. Synovial fluid was used for white blood cell count, white blood cell classification, bacterial culture, and NGS. Furthermore, we calculated the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for ESR, CRP, PCT, IL-6, and D-dimer. Data were assessed by comparing diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Results Fourteen patients showed positive results by NGS and seven showed positive bacterial culture results in the infection group; further, 18 showed negative results by NGS in the non-infection group. The AUC of ESR, D-dimer, CRP, IL-6, and PCT was 0.667, 0.572, 0.827, 0.767, and 0.808, respectively. The accuracy of NGS, bacterial culture, CRP, IL-6, and PCT was 0.91, 0.74, 0.77, 0.74, and 0.83, respectively. When comparing NGS with CRP, IL-6, PCT, and bacterial culture, differences in overall test results and those in sensitivity were statistically significant, and compared with CRP, differences in specificity were also statistically significant. In comparison with IL-6, PCT, and bacterial culture, the specificity of NGS was statistically insignificant. Conclusions Our results indicate that NGS is highly effective for diagnosing PJI.