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An object-based approach to portraying urban systems, based on the priority of spatial relationships, is proposed. Real-world entities are represented by means of unitary fixed and non-fixed objects. Fixed unitary objects are located directly, by coordinates, while non-fixed unitary objects are located by pointing to fixed objects. Self-organizing spatial ensembles of unitary urban objects are represented by means of emerging domain objects. Software objects represent unitary objects anddoi:10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2003.11.008 fatcat:nmqlyl3s2zhdlpvelhbpeuvpju