Optimization and modeling of teff-maize-rice based formulation by simplex lattice mixture design for the preparation of brighter and acceptable injera

Zewdu Cherie, Gregory R. Ziegler, Habtamu Fekadu Gemede, Ashagrie Zewdu Woldegiorgis, Fatih Yildiz
2018 Cogent Food & Agriculture  
Simplex lattice mixture design was utilized to optimize a brighter and acceptable injera (Ethiopian staple bread). Fourteen formulations of injera were produced from constrained blends of teff (70-100%), maize (0-30%) and rice (0-30%). Investigated responses were proximate, mineral, sensory and lightness (L* value). Nutritional values (g/100 g) ranged from 59.3 to 62.8 (moisture), 1.74 to 2.76 (ash), 11.5 to 14.7 (protein), 2.1 to 2.6 (fat), 3.91 to 5.2 (fiber) and 75.9 to79.4 (carbohydrate).
more » ... 4 (carbohydrate). Minerals (mg/100 g) varied from Fe: 17.7 to 25.1, Zn: 1.62-2.10, and Ca: 25.9 to 51.1. Sensory scores for color, taste, texture, number of eyes, eye size, eye distribution, top & bottom surface and overall acceptability were 5. 63-7.72, 5.22-6.21, 4.83-7.70, 6.02-7.27, 4.12-5.82, 5.42-6.93, 5.97-7.02, and 5.32-7.25, respectively, while the L* value ranged from 54.9 to 63.1. Optimum formulations of injera in terms of color, overall acceptability and L* value consisted of 70% teff, 0% maize and 30% rice with a desirability of 0.909. Numerical optimization also indicated that better sensory, proximate and mineral qualities are directly related with the proportion of rice; maize and teff, respectively.
doi:10.1080/23311932.2018.1443381 fatcat:efv3ontfvbawblcykvwulh7lmi