ABC2-SPH risk score for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients: development, external validation and comparison with other available scores
Objective: To develop and validate a rapid scoring system at hospital admission for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), and to compare this score with other existing ones. Design: Cohort study Setting: The Brazilian COVID-19 Registry has been conducted in 36 Brazilian hospitals in 17 cities. Logistic regression analysis was performed to develop a prediction model for in-hospital mortality, based on the 3978 patients that were
... s that were admitted between March-July, 2020. The model was then validated in the 1054 patients admitted during August-September, as well as in an external cohort of 474 Spanish patients. Participants: Consecutive symptomatic patients (≥18 years old) with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 admitted to participating hospitals. Patients who were transferred between hospitals and in whom admission data from the first hospital or the last hospital were not available were excluded, as well those who were admitted for other reasons and developed COVID-19 symptoms during their stay. Main outcome measures: In-hospital mortality Results: Median (25th-75th percentile) age of the model-derivation cohort was 60 (48-72) years, 53.8% were men, in-hospital mortality was 20.3%. The validation cohorts had similar age distribution and in-hospital mortality. From 20 potential predictors, seven significant variables were included in the in-hospital mortality risk score: age, blood urea nitrogen, number of comorbidities, C-reactive protein, SpO2/FiO2 ratio, platelet count and heart rate. The model had high discriminatory value (AUROC 0.844, 95% CI 0.829 to 0.859), which was confirmed in the Brazilian (0.859) and Spanish (0.899) validation cohorts. Our ABC2-SPH score showed good calibration in both Brazilian cohorts, but, in the Spanish cohort, mortality was somewhat underestimated in patients with very high (>25%) risk. The ABC2-SPH score is implemented in a freely available online risk calculator (https://abc2sph.com/). Conclusions: We designed and validated an easy-to-use rapid scoring system based on characteristics of COVID-19 patients commonly available at hospital presentation, for early stratification for in-hospital mortality risk of patients with COVID-19.