A Novel Reduced Graphene Oxide-Attapulgite (RGO-ATP) Supported Fe2O3 Catalyst for Heterogeneous Fenton-like Oxidation of Ciprofloxacin: Degradation Mechanism and Pathway
Ciprofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolones (FQs) antibiotic, is observed to increasingly pollute the environment. In this study, a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-attapulgite-based catalyst Fe2O3/RGO-ATP was prepared and used to analyze the degradation of ciprofloxacin in a heterogeneous Fenton reaction. The heterogeneous catalyst Fe2O3/RGO-ATP was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method, and the samples were characterized using BET(Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area,
... surface area, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of reaction time, temperature, pH, initial concentration, H2O2 dosage and reuse time on the degradation of ciprofloxacin by the catalyst Fe2O3/RGO-ATP was investigated. The optimum conditions of degradation of ciprofloxacin are observed to be 60 °C, pH 5, H2O2 concentration of 2.9724 mmol/L, and initial ciprofloxacin concentration of 50 mg/L. The catalyst could be reused several times with a decline in catalytic capacity. Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT) was also employed to study the degradation products of ciprofloxacin in the aqueous solution. The results show that the heterogeneous catalyst Fe2O3/RGO-ATP possessed an excellent ability for the catalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin. Direct hydroxyl oxidation is noted to be the main pathway of degradation of ciprofloxacin, and no defluorination reaction is observed during the degradation process.