Schizophrenic patients' cognitive functions in relation to their metabolic profile: a cross-sectional, comparative study on an Egyptian sample
Middle East Current Psychiatry
Background Patients with schizophrenia suffer from diffuse cognitive impairment and high prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic risks, associated with poor clinical outcomes. We aimed in this study to test the presence of cognitive impairment in a sample of patients with schizophrenia, and evaluate its possible relations to patients' metabolic profile. We recruited forty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their matched controls from the inpatient departments and outpatient services from
... ient services from January to December 2016. Schizophrenia diagnosis was confirmed by the ICD10 criteria checklist. Symptoms profile and severity were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Cognitive profile was assessed through (1) Trail Making Test, Parts A and B and (2) Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Visual Reproduction Test. Metabolic profile was assessed by measuring the body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile. SPSS (V. 22.0, IBM Corp., USA, 2013) was used for data analysis. Results The patients group had a significantly higher means in the speed of processing, executive function, attention, and working memory scores on TMT-A (p = 0.0), TMT-B (p = 0.00), and WMS-R (p = 0.029) and significantly higher FBG levels (p = 0.00). Correlation studies showed that the increase in patients' age, illness duration, treatments, number of hospitalizations, number of episodes and of ECT sessions received, symptoms severity, and deficits in cognitive function scores was associated with higher BMI and FBG. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and vascular risk factors than the general population. Close monitoring and early management of these risk factors can promote better cognitive abilities and overall functions.