Functional enhancement strategies for immunomodulation of mesenchymal stem cells and their therapeutic application
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been considered a promising alternative treatment for diverse immune disorders due to their unique biomedical potentials including the immunomodulatory property and ability to promote tissue regeneration. However, despite many years of pre-clinical studies in the research field, results from clinical trials using these cells have been diverse and conflicting. This discrepancy is caused by several factors such as poor engraftment, low survival rate,
... w survival rate, and donor-dependent variation of the cells. Enhancement of consistency and efficacy of MSCs remains a challenge to overcome the current obstacles to MSC-based therapy and subsequently achieve an improved therapeutic outcome. In this review, we investigated function enhancement strategies by categorizing as preconditioning, genetic manipulation, usage of supportive materials, and co-administration with currently used drugs. Preconditioning prior to MSC application makes up a large proportion of improvement strategies and preconditioning reagents include bioactive substances (cytokines, growth factors, and innate immune receptor agonists), hypoxia, and modification in culture method. With the piled results from previous studies using each method, disease- or patient-specific therapy has become more important than ever. On the other hand, genetic manipulation targeting therapeutic-associated factors or co-administration of biocompatible materials has also arisen as other therapeutic strategies. Thus, we summarized several specialized tactics by analyzing up-to-date results in the field and proposed some promising enhancement methods to improve the clinical outcomes for MSC therapy.