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Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling is not only important in skeletal development, but also essential in bone remodeling in adult bone. The bone remodeling process involves integrated cell activities induced by multiple stimuli to balance bone resorption and bone formation. TGF-β plays a role in bone remodeling by coordinating cell activities to maintain bone homeostasis. However, mineral metabolism disturbance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in abnormal bone remodeling, whichdoi:10.3390/ijms19082352 pmid:30103389 fatcat:ppkubkwbjfcznml7543fkli2my