Lieb-Schultz-Mattis in higher dimensions

M. B. Hastings
2004 Physical Review B  
A generalization of the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem to higher dimensional spin systems is shown. The physical motivation for the result is that such spin systems typically either have long-range order, in which case there are gapless modes, or have only short-range correlations, in which case there are topological excitations. The result uses a set of loop operators, analogous to those used in gauge theories, defined in terms of the spin operators of the theory. We also obtain various cluster
more » ... unds on expectation values for gapped systems. These bounds are used, under the assumption of a gap, to rule out the first case of long-range order, after which we show the existence of a topological excitation. Compared to the ground state, the topologically excited state has, up to a small error, the same expectation values for all operators acting within any local region, but it has a different momentum.
doi:10.1103/physrevb.69.104431 fatcat:hy5lnjiehjdqlksurvjjzg7vy4