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In Italy, procedures based upon concessions to the defendant in exchange for cooperation with the prosecution were first established in 1981, but were organically laid out only in 1988, when an adversarial Code of Criminal Procedure came into force. Little of the original versions of the 'summary proceeding' and 'application of a penalty upon request' (the Italian equivalent of plea-bargaining) has survived the swinging reforms of the 1990s. Such reforms, driven at times by concerns of publicdoi:10.1093/jicj/2.4.1050 fatcat:aytyt3ovuba2hg5qqkjlvkoxjq