Effects of errorless learning on the acquisition of velopharyngeal movement control

Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Tara Whitehill, Estella Ma, Rich Masters
2012 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America  
Language learning and the developing brain: Cross-cultural studies unravel the effects of biology and culture. Cross-cultural studies show that infants are born with innate abilities that make them "citizens of the world." By the end of the first year of life, however, culture produces a dramatic transition. Infants' abilities to discern differences in native-language sounds increase, and their abilities to discriminate sounds from other languages decreases. This perceptual narrowing of
more » ... language skills is caused by two interacting factors: the child's computational skills and their social brains. Computational skills allow rapid and automatic "statistical learning" and social interaction is necessary for this computational learning process to occur. This combination produces the neuroplasticity of the child's mind, and contrasts with the more expert (but less open) mind of the adult. Neuroimaging of infants using Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is helping explain the extraordinary learning of young children. The work is leading to a new theoretical account for the "critical period" for language. Understanding the interaction between biology and culture in human learning in the domain of language may unlock some of the mysteries and mechanisms of the human mind. MONDAY MORNING, 14 MAY 2012 HALL A, 9:15 A.M. TO 12:40 P.M. Invited Papers 9:20 1aAA1. Spherical microphone array processing of room impulse response data using frequency smoothing and singular-value decomposition. Nejem Huleihel and Boaz Rafaely (BGU, Beer Seva, 84105, nejem@ee.bgu.ac.il) Room impulse responses (RIRs) play an important role in acoustical signal processing and room acoustics analysis. The problem of estimating the directions-of-arrival (DOA) of a source in a room and its reflections using RIR data and microphone arrays, is considered. Optimal array processing methods proposed for sound field analysis using spherical microphone array are utilized. Because of the possible coherence between the signals, these methods cannot be used directly, and a preprocessing technique is typically needed. Recently, frequency smoothing (FS) as a preprocessing technique has been developed for spherical microphone arrays. Although FS has already been developed for the general case, the study of its performance in a comprehensive manner, for spherical microphone arrays with RIR data has not been previously presented. Therefore, theoretical analysis of the signal matrix structure using RIR data is performed. The conclusions from this analysis may lead to an optimization of the smoothing process. A method for an optimal selection of frequencies in the smoothing process for the case of one reflection is presented, followed by formulations for smoothing in the more general case. Finally, FS and its relation to SVD of the array data matrix are also presented and discussed. 9:40 1aAA2. Joint spherical beam forming for directional analysis of reflections in rooms. Hai Morgenstern (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, hai.morgenstern@gmail.com), Franz Zotter (University of Music and Performing Arts, Graz), and Boaz Rafaely (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva) This contribution presents a new approach for analyzing spatial directions in room impulse responses captured with source and receiver of adjustable directivity. A distinct peak in a room impulse response is usually associated with an acoustic path length of direct or reflected sound. Given the ability to modify the directivity of source and receiver by spherical beamforming, beam coefficients can be 3207 Microphone arrays allow for the measurement of the so-called spatial impulse response (SIR) of a room or of a concert hall. The SIR provides a local description of the reverberant field of that environment as a function of both time and space. It is shown that, under given assumptions, the SIR can be described by means of an integral operator, the so-called Herglotz wave function, which represents an infinite superposition of plane waves arriving from all possible directions. The kernel of this operator (the Herglotz kernel) contains all the information on the SIR. In practical cases only a limited amount of information is available to compute the Herglotz kernel, typically because a finite number of sensors is used for the measurement. In that respect, several alternatives are discussed to represent the Herglotz density as a sum of a finite number of basis functions. Some results for numerical simulations are then presented, which show the Herglotz kernel for simple examples. Finally, some limitations of this representation are discussed, especially those imposed by the use of real microphone arrays. 3209
doi:10.1121/1.4708235 fatcat:7wzupz5u2nd6nc7ttvbpxwvunm