Tai chi for treating osteopenia and primary osteoporosis: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis
Clinical Interventions in Aging
Purpose: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of Tai chi (TC) as an adjuvant treatment for osteopenia and primary osteoporosis. Methods: We went through eight databases to identify relevant randomized controlled trials that compared TC with a control group. The primary outcome was osteoporosis-related fractures (fracture incidence). Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted using RevMan 5.3 and TSA 0.9. Results: Fifteen randomized controlled trials
... controlled trials involving a total of 857 patients were included in the analyses. No trials reported primary outcome; however, bone mineral density (BMD) values differed significantly in subgroup 1 (TC vs no treatment; weighted mean difference [WMD] =0.05 g/cm 2 , 95% CI 0.03 to 0.07; P,0.00001; P for heterogeneity =0.22, I 2 =22%) and subgroup 2 (TC vs conventional treatments; WMD =0.16 g/cm 2 , 95% CI 0.11 to 0.21; P,0.00001; P for heterogeneity =0.008, I 2 =75%). In addition, two trials compared TC with conventional treatments, which found a significant difference in bone gla protein (standardized mean difference =-1.18, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.70; P,0.00001; P for heterogeneity =0.58, I 2 =75%). The results of the BMD were confirmed by TSA. Also, TC may have a certain effect on the relief of osteoporotic pain (WMD = -2.61, 95% CI -3.51 to -1.71; WMD = -1.39, 95% CI -2.01 to -0.77). However, it did not promote the quality of life, level of serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and also had no effect on bone turnover markers. Conclusion: Although there is no study monitoring fracture incidence, TC may be beneficial for patients in improving BMD values, level of bone gla protein, and relieving osteoporotic pain. However, due to the low methodological quality, current evidence for treating osteopenia and primary osteoporosis through TC is insufficient.