Effects of Depression, Dementia and Delirium on Activities of Daily Living in Elderly Patients after Discharge
The three geriatric conditions, depression, dementia and delirium (3D's), are common among hospitalized older patients and often lead to impairments of activities of daily living. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of depression, dementia and delirium on activities of daily living (ADLs) during and after hospitalization. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted between 2012 and 2013 in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan. Patients aged 65 years and older admitted to the
... dmitted to the geriatric ward were invited to this study. Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, Mini-Mental State and Confusion Assessment Method were used to identify patients with depression, dementia and delirium on admission, respectively. Barthel Index (BI) was used to evaluate patients' functional status on admission, at discharge, 30-day, 90-day and 180-day after discharge. Generalized Estimating Equation was used to calculate the associations between 3 D's and BI. Results One-hundred-and-forty-nine patients were included in this study. Twenty-seven patients (18.1%) had depression, 37 (24.8%) had dementia, and 85 (57.0%) had delirium. There were significant lower BI scores in patients with dementia and delirium compared with those without up to 180 days after discharge, but no difference was seen in the depression group. In general, patients had delirium or dementia had worsening functional status, even though significant magnitude of improvements on BI scores after discharge. Conclusions Depression does not affect patients' ADLs. On the other hand, dementia and delirium can persistently limit patients' physical function. Future care should focus more on dementia and delirium to restore function.