Biochemical Markers of Neurotoxicity in Wildlife and Human Populations: Considerations for Method Development

Christopher J. Stamler, Niladri Basu, Hing Man Chan
2005 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A  
Disruption of neurochemical parameters in blood and brain tissues can be used as early biomarkers of neurotoxicity in human and wildlife epidemiological studies. To investigate the feasibility of biomarker measurements in field samples obtained from remote locations, tissue storage limits were determined with human blood and mink cortex tissue using efficient and cost-effective microplate assays. Results show that isolated blood platelets and plasma can be stored at 4°C for 4 wk before
more » ... nt of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and cholinesterase (ChE) activities, while human lymphocytes can be stored at 4°C for up to 2 d before muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor binding analysis. Blood cells stored frozen resulted in decreased MAO activity and mACh receptor function. These data suggest that mink brain tissue obtained from field samples can be stored at various temperatures without affecting dopamine (D2) and mACh receptor densities; however, MAO and ChE activities were most stable in samples stored in a −20°C domestic freezer or at 4°C. Multiple freeze/thaw cycles alter mACh and D2 receptors and MAO activity in mink cortex samples and should therefore be minimized. In conclusion, these neurochemical biomarkers can efficiently be measured in large human and wildlife neurotoxicity studies, provided proper storage conditions are maintained.
doi:10.1080/15287390590956560 pmid:16009654 fatcat:ajnf4qsdanadpmx2anncynzqga