EU AND TURKEY'S ENERGY STRATEGIES
Online) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE STUDIES
─Abstract ─ Since the first oil shock, the energy sector has experienced a wide range of influences that have greatly influenced energy analysis and modelling activities. Energy models were however not developed for the same purpose; some were concerned with better energy supply system design given a level of demand forecast, better understanding of the present and future demand-supply interactions, energy and environment interactions, energy-economy interactions and energy system planning.
... ystem planning. Well-known modelling tools are LEAP(Long-range Energy Alternative Planning Model)-a popular model, MEDEE (Model for Evaluating Demand for Energy) family of programmes and MAED (Model for Analysis of Energy Demand). By using the above mentioned modelling tools, countries set their energy policies, scenarios and their strategies. Coal was displaced by natural gas in the UK to a large extent and in Spain and Netherlands to a lesser extent. In Italy, fuel-oil based generation which was the dominant form of power in the mid-1990s was replaced by natural gas. In the British case, the electricity generation mix for 2010 was as follows: 38% came from natural gas, 36% from coal, 22.5% from nuclear and the rest from renewable sources including hydropower. Natural gas consolidated its position as the leader in the Netherlands during this period. In 2011, dependence on fossil fuels in electricity generation remained very high in the Netherlands (88%), Italy (79%) and the UK (above 70%).