Carotid artery stenosis in hypertensive rats impairs dilatory pathways in parenchymal arterioles
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Matin N, Fisher C, Jackson WF, Diaz-Otero JM, Dorrance AM. Carotid artery stenosis in hypertensive rats impairs dilatory pathways in parenchymal arterioles. Hypertension is a leading risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment and is strongly associated with carotid artery stenosis. In normotensive rats, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) leads to cognitive impairment that is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent dilation in
... chymal arterioles (PAs). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of BCAS on PA function and structure in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, a model of human essential hypertension. Understanding the effects of hypoperfusion on PAs in a hypertensive model could lead to the identification of therapeutic targets for cognitive decline in a model that reflects the at-risk population. We hypothesized that BCAS would impair endothelium-dependent dilation in PAs and induce artery remodeling compared with sham rats. PAs from BCAS rats had endothelial dysfunction, as assessed using pressure myography. Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin production had no effect on PA dilation in sham or BCAS rats. Surprisingly, inhibition of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid production increased dilation in PAs from BCAS rats but not from sham rats. Similar results were observed in the presence of inhibitors for all three dilatory pathways, suggesting that epoxygenase inhibition may have restored a nitric oxide/prostaglandin-independent dilatory pathway in PAs from BCAS rats. PAs from BCAS rats underwent remodeling with a reduced wall thickness. These data suggest that marked endothelial dysfunction in PAs from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats with BCAS may be associated with the development of vascular cognitive impairment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study assessed the structure and function of parenchymal arterioles in a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and hypertension, both of which are risk factors for cognitive impairment. We observed that impaired dilation and artery remodeling in parenchymal arterioles and abolished cerebrovascular reserve capacity may mediate cognitive deficits.