Magnetic resonance imaging of cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary adenoma diagnostic criteria and surgical findings
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
This study used MRI to define preoperative imaging criteria for cavernous sinus invasion (CSI) by pituitary adenoma (PA). MR images of 103 patients with PA submitted to surgery (48 with CSI) were retrospectively reviewed. The following MR signs were studied and compared to intraoperative findings (the latter were considered the gold standard for CSI detection): presence of normal pituitary gland between the adenoma and CS, status of the CS venous compartments, CS size, CS lateral wall bulging,
... eral wall bulging, displacement of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) by adenoma, grade of parasellar extension (Knosp-Steiner classification) and percentage of intracavernous ICA encased by the tumor. Statistical analysis was performed using qui-square testing and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were obtained for each MR finding. The following signs have been found to represent accurate criteria for non-invasion of the CS: 1- normal pituitary gland interposed between the adenoma and the CS (PPV, 100%); 2- intact medial venous compartment (PPV, 100%); 3- percentage of encasement of the intracavernous ICA lower than 25% (NPV, 100%) and 4- medial intercarotid line not crossed by the tumor (NPV, 100%). Criteria for CSI were: 1- percentage of encasement of the intracavernous ICA higher than 45%; 2- occlusion of three or more CS venous compartments and 3- occlusion of the CS lateral venous compartment. The CS was very likely to be invaded if the inferior venous compartment was not detected (PPV. 92,8%), if the lateral intercarotid line was crossed (PPV. 96,1%) or if a bulging lateral dural wall of the CS was seen (PPV, 92,3%). The preoperative diagnosis of CSI by PA is extremely important since endocrinological remission is rarely obtained after microsurgery alone in patients with invasive tumors. The above mentioned MR imaging criteria may be useful in advising most of the patients preoperatively on the potential need for complimentary therapy after surgery.