The relationship between iron deficiency and bone mineral density in young female athletes
The iron deficiency that occurs in young female athletes can cause a decrease in bone density in three mechanisms, through the process of hydrolysis of procollagen formation, metabolism along with vitamin D and hypoxia. The aimed of this study is to analyze the relationship of iron deficiency with bone density in young female athletes. A crosssectional study design with 70 athletes aged 12-21 years conducted at the BPPLOP Central Java, Salatiga Athletics Club and Athletics and Swimming Club
... d Swimming Club Semarang State University. Iron deficiency was determined by levels of ferritin serum, bone density measured by Bone Densitometer Quantitative Ultrasound, body fat percentage and muscle mass measured by Body Composition Analyzer. Bone-specific Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for physical activity data. Nutrition intakes such as protein, calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, potassium, magnesium, and sodium was collected by Semi Quantitative-Food Frequency Questionnaire. This study used bivariate analysis with Pearson and Rank-Spearman Correlation Tests and multivariate analysis with Multiple Linear Regression Test. A young female athlete who suffers from iron deficiency is approximately 14.3%. All subjects had normal bone density. Significant relationships were observed between iron deficiency based on serum ferritin (p = 0.044) and muscle mass (p = 0.002) with bone density on young female athletes. The muscle mass variable had the strongest influence on bone density (p = 0.002; adjusted R2 = 0.117). This study showed that iron deficiency and muscle mass are related to bone density, but the other factors that might have an impact on bone density must be considered.