No-till corn performance in response to P and fertilization modes
No-tillage systems provide soil changes that affect nutrient dynamics, hence, changing rates and forms of fertilizer application. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphorus (P) and modes of nitrogen (N) and P application in corn under long-term no-tillage in a clayey Oxisol. Two experiments were carried out in the same experimental area and in the same year, in a randomized blocks design with four replications. In experiment I, the treatments consisted of five doses of phosphorus (0,
... 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5) applied in the sowing furrow. In experiment II, the treatments consisted of the N and P application modes (topdressing, in the sowing furrow and control - without N and P). Experiment I evaluated the root length, P uptake and grain yield and, the Experiment II, the firing height and yield. The P rates provided linear increases in root length in the 0-10 cm layer, P uptake and grain production. The different modes of application provided differences in the firing height and corn yield. The control treatment (0 kg ha-1 of N and P) provided the highest firing height, superior than those of topdressing and application in the furrow, which were not significantly different. The topdress application of N and P provided an increase in corn yield that exceeded 16 and 42% of the application in the furrow and the control, respectively. Thus, the results confirmed that increasing rates of P2O5, in soil with high initial P content, influence positively corn production factors, but with little significant responses, and the topdress application of N and P on soil with high P content, without water restriction, provided increased grain yield in relation to the application in the furrow.