A monthly record for all interested in chemical manufactures: Part 2

1895 Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry  
~1 r r r c 1 i 3 0 , 1 8~~] THE JOURNdL OF TEE SOOJEm OF OHEMIadL INDUSTRY. 2G9 soinc\rhat duller shiide, but fnstcr to wnsliing iiiid very fnst Dictniinc Deep Blnclrs S S w i d 0 0. -"lie fnstness to wnshing niid sonping is cscellent, the coloitrs not bleeding on to white cotton cvcu by repeated \vnslii!ig. The slinde, however, becoines browvner. D i t i a r i~~c Urotuiis M rrird B.--'Tllcse two new colouring mutters, snid to be the fnstest to light of all direct cotton dyestuffs [browns).
more » ... nie fiistcr by treiitnicnt with copper sulplinte, lint1 the fn.itness to wusliiug is also improved. 3lict:niiie Oritrip 11, nicd IXrteiine Urorcv~ 8 G, also become browner i n slindr, but arc improved in fnstness to light nritl svnsbing. l)inniiirc Oroim G ~ctitil Dinniiitc Yelloiu A' . -The fnstness to liplit rind wtishing is grently iniproved ; thc shnrlc with tlic forincr dycstn~F Iteconics browner nnd with the hitter iliiller nnd ninre oraiigc in tone. Tllia trentmcnt with copper sulplia~e differs from that in usc with the Iici~roiizurins, iniisrnucli 11s in tho e w e of tho brown iind bhck coloias the iiuprownimt in fnstness is proki\)ly tlac to nn osidation of tliu coloiiring matter. " Fltiorrltroin " 11s 11 Fixing dgctit.--'l'lic mnterinl, nfter dyeiiig, is boiled in ii biitli contuining " Plnorcliroiii " solution for $--A hour. 'I'lic riuiiiititj* oE this sirlt wries with tlic depth of sliutle. Por deep coloiirs 3 per cent., and for liglitrr sliatlcs the snnie wcigllt of "Bliiorclirorn " as of cljestnff is iiscd. 'l'iic I' nfter-cliro~ing " of tlie following dyesttiffs giivc sntisfuctory results :-~i c t a i i r e Fitst J M F.-'l'tAc colour becomes fiistcr to \snsliirip iir:tl docs not ltleetl so rniiclt, Imt tlic f:istiicss to liglit is dccrenscd. Dfiiiitiirc f1roii:c G'.-'l%c fnstness to , wislling nud ~onpit~g is greatly iniproved, iiiiil tho colour bleeds only very little even in tlic darker sliriiles. ~; I O I I~~I L ' f3rotuns ill 1IlJd U , rr1111 D i t~~i i h c I'cllow L?.-Po/us.sitiiti h ' i~l~r~i~t t d~. -Cotton ia dyed with the adilitioii of coiinnon stilt or Glnitbcr's s:tlts, but rtot with sotliuni cnrl)oniite, to tlic tIye.Iiiitll. After washing it is boiled for 10-15 niiuiitcs with n 3-4 per ccut. solution of potnssiiiui Iticliroiiiiite. Il"ivouii11~le rasults were obtniiied by this treatment witlimitli 6-6 per cent. ot' coloiiril;g Incttter, nfter boiling 15 iniiiiitcn with 4 per cent. of biclrrotiinte,yicltls ii black very frist to wiisliiiig nntl soaping, which bleeds very little niid is fiist to nciil. l'lie sliiidcs obtniiicil frorn the ~n n r k 0 0 nre iiot so y~oil ns tliose froni the otlicr dycstiifC Uirtrriittr: / .~O I C~J S JI rtitcl II. -Tlie best results were obtiiiried by it inistiire ol' 2 per cent. of I)iclironiiitc iiitd 2 pcr cent. of copper sulpliiitc. 'l%e iiIc of potiissiiini hiclironintc as ii fising ngent for these dptii11's, periuits of tlicir iisc in conjunction with niiiliiic tliiclc or cntecliil. ]?or tlic fornier the use of 4 per cctlt. I)inniinc Deep I~luclc S S IIS ii liottoiii is~rccuiiiiiicndcd, w\ii\e xitli cateehii 1)i:iiiiine hewn bt or II, with or without fhu iitltlitioii of IXnniiric 1)ccp Jllaclc S S or 0 0, mi~y be nddctl to tlio biitli dong with tlic requisite iiiiioiint of cntccliu iiiitl 15 Iicr cent. of Clnubcr's siilts (see 11. Pitlkc, FiirI). %tit. 5, I P D~-I J , 3.19). Tlic catccliu nntl the tlininiiic .coloiir nrc tlicti lisctl with n iiiisiurc of copper si~lplliitc : i i d potussiiiiii bicliromntc iu n sepiirnte bntli.-II. 1. to ligtlt. ,llicse colourx iilao show incrensc in firstiless to wnsliiug. U~I I I I I~~I L . U C I~~) Lil(Ir*l<.v S S ( t i 1~1 0 0.-Cottoti dyed tlic mistiirc does not heconie too hot. Thc liquid nfter rigarin cooling is ~ic~itriilised hy the nddition of 55 p i s . of magnesium cnrbonntc nnd liltercd. The filtrto inuy be Irep for some tittic witliont cl~nnge. If tlic solution bc diluted with w t c r all!] ii little sodium bicnrbonntc be nddcd, tlicn on boiling, n separiition of flocks of cliroiniuru lrydrnto occur3. Thu goods nru Iioiled in a bnth eontnining 50-75 cc. of tho Nordent solution of zoo U., per litre of water for i-f-Iionrs, mid iifter \vnslting, nro dycd in tho nsunl wny. Very good results ivcrc abt:irned wit11 Congo, Diamiue fnst red, lknzo Iroivti XB:i, I?eniroaziiriiic G, nud othqrs. -H. I. 'l'his is iiindc use of ns follows:-~l l l J~~O~~l i i~i l f of. GootLv l ) n i i i n g C d by ~b ! e d i n { ! of the Dyc, 31 ISEI) gawk contiiiniiip yirrns G p l with Aliznrin blue, Antliriicene brown W, Aliznriu red, arid vnrious nzo-dyestuffs, &e., and wliite cotton silk or wool, nrc often injured by the '6 bleeding " of tliesc culoiirs. Tlic discolored parts mriy ngiiin be rendered white by working tho pieces in a cliliite sohition of sodium bitiulpliitc (10 Iitres of cornmerein1 bisulpliitc in 1,000 litres of water) fit 3 5 ' C., nnd tlicii wnsliing. 1\11 eseess of sodium bisulpliitc must. be nvoided otlierwise injury to the dyed yirns results.--11. I. k ' . Giesdcr (Cottbris). Fiirber % e k 6, 1894-95, 149. Tlie Dgciti!~ of Ifitir niitl ils I'cgefabfe Stibstittrics. &I. Cnngliofer. 1:iirber &it. 6, 36-37. A YEW 111rgc iron prins or rvoodrii vats, pitcltforlrs, rough wiitocv erntcs, siniiliir to itiose iiserI for neict carboys, lind sevcrtil drying frrimer. coiiiplctc tlic plniit necessary for the dyeing of Iiiiii: The dycrl goods niiiy be :illo\ved to dry iii the opeii air, but if kept wiitiiig to ho dried by rcnson of nnfiivournl~lc \venther, tlicy slioultl be covered with cloths to protect tlic coloiir froni light. The great clcmund tit present for sttitling niiitcriiils cannot be tnet by the suplily of liorstliiiir, cattle-linir, unil bristles. It is tlicrcforc ncccisnry to seek LL sribstitiito for tlw.;e. One of the best is the I'itn fibre, nlso known ns Mexicnn filire, .vegctcible Iiorscliitir, &I!., consisting of the leaf-librcs of vnrioiis species of Aiticriciiu Aloe. This fibre vcrj-cloecly rescnibles Iiorschiiir, but is ycllowisli-wliitc in colour. I t is iinportetl froni S o d l Aiiicrica in biilcs of 90-?50 kilos. No prcvio~is clerinsing is required, ns with liorselinir, iind tln: dyeing olicrntion is tliercforc siniplcr. Conl-tnr dyes ;ire not iised. 'rlie only coloiirfi dyed nrc blnck, grey, iind brown^ I t is geiieriilly spnn lifter clyeiitg, togetlicr wit11 red linrseliiiir, uncl twisted iuto cords 10-15 nietrcs iu Ic!igth. Tlie~e iirc siil~jectcil to the nction of stenin, nt n prcmm of 111111' nti ntmosplierc, iind in this process if the dye bu not fiist it riins into tlic hcrselinir, giving to tlic inistiire it soiled niid inicveti npI)c"raiice. After gtcnniiiig it is sell dried. I t is niofit ccoiioiiiii:ul in ilyeiiig tlic Pita fibre to iisc nits ciipiible of Iiolding bt)O-600 kilos. of uintcrinl. Some nietliods of dyeing his librc tire :is follows :-Ill~iclr, 1:ir.d ~lfi*tliod.--*l'lic hit11 is filled with wntcr mliicli is lieriled to tilF"-iV C. UIII the dycstuffndded. Bor IOU Ib. of iiiatcrinl this woitltl consist of* 1; Ib. solid log-~~o o d cstnict, iiiitl $ ill. solid fustic cstrnct. \\'lien the dye is rlissolvcd, eiiter the fibre, boil f' r ?,? hours, nnd steep in the liquor overnight. 1llacli, S(!coticl Bfu/iintZ.--\\'orlc tlic libre in smnll lots itt a tiriic. first in II bath contniriing lime, tlieii i n $1 wenk rolutiou OF ferrous sidphiitc. The poor greyish-bliiclc thus obtuinctl is topped with hintill ii~noitnts of log\vood nud rustic, au1 tlieii suddctrcd with fcrrous siilplintc. A full l~l~c l c irliicli ilucs not rub ic thus protluced. Grry, First dIctliod.--llciit tliu h t l i to GO'--fOO, ndil 2 Ib. siinincli (for lo! 11). gnodn) nnd enter tho mnterinl. Allow to steep overiiiylit iuid tlien work the fibre, smirll portions nt n t h e , i n it vciy w:ik lulce*.i~riii ferrous sulpliatc bntli for 10 niiiiittes. M o w to lio for 2-3 Itours iiud dry without tiisiiitig. Tho nest tIny Iifi IIIIII dry. 270 THE JOURNAL OF THE BO(1IETP OF 0HENIOA.b INDUSTRY. [Jfnrch:gO,lee5. Grep, Sccond Mcflod.-I3oil 23 hours in n bnth contnining iibout 3 pints pyro!ignite ofiron for 100 Ib. of gOOd8. The dye-vessel is provided with n cover. As before, allow thc goods to lie \vet for n few hours 1:efore drying. Light Broiun.-Steep overnight in n bath coiitnining 11 Ib. of catechu, f Ib. of iogwood cstrnet, 2 lb. of fnstic extnict, and 3; 0%. of copper sulpliate. Tlie nest dry pnss th~ongh 11 strong iron linth, rind thcu through n hot bichromntc bath. nnd rinse. Drirlr Broru~i.-Thc dye-vessel is pncked tightly with t!ic innterinl, and o soltition contniniug logwood estrnct, fiistic estrnct, nnd pyrolignitc of iron is poured upon i:. TI10 bnth is filled tip with watcr, covered, and boiled for two hours. The mnterinl is tnkcn out nnd nllowed to lie for fiomc time, pnsseil through a bntli of eutccliu nnd bichromnte, wnslied, nnd dried.-R. l3. I?. , Boiled-off Liquoi* froni the Stripping of Raw Silk. Ileiiri Tiis sonpy liquor cinployc~l for rcnioving the silk gluc from mew silk (stripping) consists of undecotnposed soiip, ammonin, serioiu, the sodiuni comliounds of scricin niid oxysericin, nnd finally frcc fntty ncid. It is iiseil iu silk d p h g ns n levelling ngcnt for ncitl coal-tnr colours, irnd neeording to tlic nutlior it acts by forniiug iiii emulsion in the bnth, and tliiis by Iiindering tlie motion of tlic nmlecules of the colouring inatter, prevents the too rapid dyeing of the goods, tlic free fiitty ncid cansirig tile shades to bc bright nnd fresh. The dyer em, by the usc of boile~l-05 liquor, enter tlic silk into tlic boiling bath, nnd still olituiu level slindcs. . Vnrious substitutesfor boiled-off liquor bnrc been proposed, sue11 RS :-Glue, fitnrcli paste, giini trngacnntli, kc. The folloiving mixture lins been used with ndvnntwe :-1 kilo. of ~Iiirseillcs eoiip dissolved iu 40 ~iires of ~ioilng wntcr nrc ndded to 280-300 grnis. of glue dissolved in 10 litres of wter, and tho whole ?ientetl to boiling, 130-150 cc. of Provcnce oil are grndunlly riiu in, nnd the boiling continued for n short time. I n order to recover the fiilty ncids from tlie wiste dycbnth liquors, they iire trerrtetl with cnlcinin cliloridc or with lime wntcr, tlic fatty ncids niid the sericins being prccipitnted ns cnlciuni fiults. The cdcc wIiic11 separates is dcconiposcd with hydrocliloric ncid, nnd the futty ncids iigniii couvertcd into sonp. I)rcvon prccipitntcs tlic fntty neids nnd scricins in the wnstc liquor with liyclrochloric wid, niid collects the former, which nrc nftcrwards purified. . Ginnolli uses nn nciil solution of ferrous finlplintc, rind trcnts tlic uiisturc of fat:y ncitls nnd iron sirlts i n II lend nutoclnvc wit11 sulphuric wid (18 pcr cent. of ncid ut 15' li. of the weight of tho air dricrl ninss) nnder {--$ ittinosphere prcssrre. The fiitty ncids lire tliiis obtiiiued in ii stntc of purity, niid m a y be directly iinide into sonp. (For 'hylor's process, sec this Jour~iiil, ISHG, 378, Eug. I'nt. G33l.) Silbcrninnu. Biirber Zeit. 6, 1894-95, 81-82, -11. I. ngera of cnlico, linen, or flnnncl ; over this tlic snrp i s scnincd, nnd is wrnpped ronnd with a siniilnr onter covering. The warp benm is plnced verticnlly in the vessel dcstined o receive tlie (lye or other liquid, ond this liquid is forced 'rom n reservoir by menns of n Iiump into the wnrp benm, tnd floss tlirougli tlic perforntions nntl the ivnrlis into the surrounding vessel. When the level of liquid in this rcssel rcnelics a ex?nin hcigbt the pnmp is reversed, nnd :lie liquid withdr:iwn by snction through the warp nnd pcrrorntions into tlic reFcrvoIr. These two operntions nre repented as often ns required. Stenicing is effected by pssing stenni through the wnrps, >r by plncing the wnrp-benms in n suitnblc stenming ippnmtns. Aftcr drying 1iy drnwing or forcing hot nir tliroiigh the wnrp, the \varp-benm is Inid directly in the weaving loom. -1L 11. B. ruiproceimnts it1 I'ririthig Cot loti Goods. W. E. Kny,. Thornliebnuk, nnd The Tliornliebank Company, Lim., TIIE snlt, coiitniniiig two i~iolcciiles of sodiuin sulphite to one of socliiini cnrbonntc, iiiid twenty-oiic of wnter of crystnllisntion, is obtniucd Iiy dissolving i pnrts of crystsllised sodiutii sulphitc uncl 4 parts of crystullised sodium cnrbonntc in 12 pnrts of nnter, iind cvii~ior~itiiig tlre solution by boiling until n film iippeiirs. 0 1 1 lidding I L cryfitnl of the previously prepnrcd double salt to tlie coolcd liquid, tlie now snlt crystrillises out. Tlie siiiiic siilt iiiiiy bc olitnincrl by crnpnrntiiig the soliition of the constituent sitlts in n vnciluiii over siilpliuric ireid. Instend of iisiug specinlly prepared sodiiiiii siilpliitc in foriiiinp the doiible snlt, siilpliur dioside giis uiny be pns~eetl into solution of sodiuur cnrbonntc in thc proportion inriicntcd by the eqiintioii-3Nn&03 + BSO, 4 21II,O = (?Nn:SO,~u,C0,21II~O) + BCO,. Crystnls of the doulilc snlt nre not oritliscd on csposiirc to nir nt the ordinary tcmlierntiirc, h u t gn1~1nn11~bccoriic opnquc from IXR of wnter ; but ncioiilnr crystnls, obtniucd by cvnporntinqr the solution of tlie snlt a t GOo C., nrc pcrmniicnt in tlic nir. Tlie crystuls lose nll tlieir wntcr, nt 100'. nnd if hentcd iii air nt that teiiipernturc iiiitlcrgo slight osidiition.-l<. S. A X I S T U I l E of 55 piirts of sodiitni siilplinte, iu coinbinntion wit11 100 piirts of witer, nntl 48 parts of cnrboii, is cnlciucd in n suitiiblu furnncc. The proiluct, stnted to consist of sodiuni sulpliitle iind erirhon, is trcntcd for recovery of tho siilphiir, 11s for iiistiiiicc, with cerlioiiic ncitl. nccording to tlic equotion, II,CO, + Xnz< = SiiZCUI + 11& The residue is ground up w i t h cirrboii niiil water, irntl Iicnted iii n Thwnite or otlicr type of revolviiig fiiriinco. so 11s eitlier to rolntilise or osidisc the srilpliitr. \\'lien tlic combustion is of nn oxidising chiiructcr, tlic rcnctioii is rc~rrcsciited by-OSn,S i BII,O f 2c + 5 0 , = "1r,C03 i BSO" + ?II,O. -a. s. sodium cnrhonnte occurring irs B hy-product in tlie process, containing some sulplio-iiid ferrocyanide, i w y be usefully npplied in !lie mnnufnctiire of n siilpliocynnitle. by doublo dccomposition aith cnlciiini wlpliocyaiiide.--I':. S. A SODIVJI-LEAD nlloy is fused in cin iron pot under n smn11 qunntity of previously formed cyanide, and nohydrous ferrocyniiidc (of sodium or potnssium) is ndtled i D smnll portions. "For cvery I00 pnrts of iinhydrous ferrocyrnide to he coiircrtcd into cgnnidc tlicre should be cmploycd, so much of the alloy its corresponds to at lcnst 13 purts of mctnllic soclium." \\'hen thc renction is complete, tho mistiire consists of three distinct Ii~ycrs, fused lend, reduced iron, nnd nbovc, the fiised iilknline cynnidc, which latter is cusily sepnruted. Sodium-lend nlloy is prcfernbly used i n the process ; but mny be replaced by potnssiuni-lead nlloy.-l<. S. Air IiqirocetI Conipormd or Mi.t$ttrc, for Frce:iitg or Chi/liiig. l<, C. Edmunds, London. Eng. Put. 6462, >Iitrcli 31, 1894. TIIR cooliiig inisturc is constitiitetl of sodiuiii sulpbnte, 4 Ib. ; niiimoniiim nitrnte, :I Ib. ; sodium ~ihosplinte iind nmmoiiiam sulplinte, I Ib. ench ; nnd 2 oz. of nitric ticid dilutcd with 4 Ib. of wiiter, or npprosimntcly these proportions. The compound is stnted to be \re11 suited for use i n the nppnrntus de~criheil in 1hg. Pat. 1G,78?, 1893, by the snmc inventor, licsidcs Iinviug more generiil iipplication. -E. s. Intprocciiieirts in I.'tirr~iices fvr lLrfriictiitg Polnsh froiir lltc Grewc coiilnined iii Slicep'.~ ll'ool. >fadnine 15. llicliirrd-Liigcric, Itoubriis, Frnrice. Bog. I'nt. 13,677, July 16, 1891. TIIE fiiriiace mnp hnoc one, two, or inore storeys. liacli storey is provided with oue or inore rcvolviiig stirrers, to ~rreveiit losses by priming. Tlrc stirrers, 11ioiintc11 on transverse sliiifts, hirve ciicli cross m i i s supporting four slieets of wire gnuzc, \vIiicli during revolution in n dircctiuii opposite to tho drniiglit, periotlicnlly clip into the incouiiug sIicep's wool grease, wliicli is thus distributed over tho gnuzc mid csposcd to tho lient of the escripiiig giises. l'lie nrcli of the furnace consists of ribbed cast-iroii pnaels, filled with cluy betwceii the ribs, to retriiu lient nncl obstruct outwnrtl r,idintion. hiiiiiioiiincril niid offensive twoducts w e cou-A Process ofctnef Appitrcifec.q fur Uistillicry cmf Conilciising ;Nilric Acid, Tar;nnd other Liqeeitls. W. U. I\Issficld, Leicestcr. From W. Dieterlc, Peucrbncli, near Stuttgiirt, nnd L. Ilolirinnuii, Iirnusclirvitz, nciir Jluskiiu, Cermiiny. Eng. l'nt. 14,520. July 28, 1894. . . _ . , \ '~~~i mivtllrc of sll~tpctre with sulp~llric prop6rtiolls, is ~~~~~~~l , in suiInl,lc I of the process, ridn~& of obtainiug n clisfillntc of nitric ncid of high purit:, tlic :tppamtus show nud dcscribcd lidos at 6o lo". IL tcmpcr,lturc ns 50' lo GOo C., the hydro-ncids of tlichnlogcns (pnrticulnrly I bciug """* ' uoticeablc when tlic nitre contnins iniicli sodium cliloriclc) ' lire oxidiscd with liberntion of tbc lialogcns nntl production of osidcs of nitrogen. To rcniovc thesc by nctiod OF I L ' continuous current of air or of iin iiicrt gns, pnsscd iuto thc iiiixturc from tlrc bcgiiining of tlic hcnting to the tcrmiuirtion to low redness, wliilc steiim is siiiiultiineously forced in Thc rciictious nrc rcprescritcd by the two eqiiiitious : I. c f 1120 f GI, = mc1 + co. Ir. c i 911,o + 3CI, = dllC1 + GO2. 'l'he gnseuus iuistiirc of liydrocliloric nciil, enrboiiic ositlc, mid cnrboiiie wid, is 11ii~~etl iritu sriitablu nppiiriitiis for conclciising the Iiydrochloric acid gns iu wiiter, thc produet Iieing dcscribctl ns pitre. IIy).tlrobroiriic wid is obtaincd Sroiu Ixoiuinc iu like iiinnucr.--l.~. S. VII1,-GLASS, POTTERY, AND ENAMELS, E i c~i i d Gktzircy 011 Conhitry Uterrsilv ruith .4c1fit~eoc1y as (1 Coicdifitctif. l'oiil liiiszper. Diiigler's Polyt. .I. 294, Xoir fioinc tiiuc piist, iron cooking ~i t e~~s i l s with tin eniiiiicl gliiziiig of cfipcc"i1 briglitiicfis liavc been in tlic inarket. Tlic nutbor liirs invcstigiiteil tlic coiiipositiou of this cniiiiiel 157-188. 30 of chnlk, SO of criicible or lire-clay po\vtlcr, 30 of griiplritc, "0 of coke nslics, iiiny IIC uscd us tlio constitueuts of &rc1i30,180~.] THE JOURNAL OF THE BOUTETP OF O E E M 3 X l i INDUSTRY.
doi:10.1002/jctb.5000140302 fatcat:ipprzdqekvhddg7vfgf2t4th5u