First Skull of Medium Sized Titanosaur in Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent Found from the Latest Maastrichtian Vitakri Formation of Pakistan; Associated Cranial and Postcranial Skeletons of Gspsaurus pakistani (Poripuchia, Stocky Titanosauria, Sauropoda) from Pakistan and India

Muhammad Sadiq Malkani
2020 Open Journal of Geology  
Titanosaurs' crania are rare in the global world. Further titanosaur crania associated with postcrania are again negligible which prevented for its higher and lower level phylogenetic studies. The titanosaur skulls were also extraordinarily rare in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, but the recent discoveries of holotypic skull, braincase and associated postcranial skeleton of Gspsaurus pakistani is anatomical wealth. Further its exemplar' skeletons from Top Kinwa and Mari Bohri of Pakistan and Chota
more » ... Pakistan and Chota Simla from India provide more information which can be used for comparison. Here the holotypic partial skull with braincase and associated postcranial skeleton and also its exemplars and referred materials with key elements of Gspsaurus pakistani are being presented which have international significance and contribute to understanding the evolutionary relationships, higher and lower level phylogenetic studies and paleobiogeographic history of the vertebrates of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Figure 2. Gspsaurus pakistani holotypic skulls MSM-79-19 (larger specimen) and MSM-80-19 (smaller specimen) found from Alam locality. Skull and mandible reconstruction after fossils and estimation. Scale in image, each black or white digit is 1 cm. Scale bar in line drawing represents 5 cm.
doi:10.4236/ojg.2020.104020 fatcat:xvn76y4ugfdk7c3ybwb5cwok5u