The additive effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on left ventricular deformation and myocardial perfusion in essential hypertension: a 3.0T cardiac magnetic resonance study
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risks of heart failure and mortality in patients with hypertension, however the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aims to investigate the impact of coexisting T2DM on left ventricular (LV) deformation and myocardial perfusion in hypertensive individuals.Materials and Methods: Seventy hypertensive patients without T2DM [HTN(T2DM-)], forty patients with T2DM [HTN(T2DM+)] and 37 age- and sex-matched controls underwent cardiac
... erwent cardiac magnetic resonance examination. Left ventricular (LV) myocardial strains, including global radial (GRPS), circumferential (GCPS) and longitudinal peak strain (GLPS), and resting myocardial perfusion indices, including upslope, time to maximum signal intensity (TTM), and max signal intensity (MaxSI), were measured and compared among groups by analysis of covariance after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and heart rate followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. Backwards stepwise multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effects of T2DM on LV strains and myocardial perfusion indices in patients with hypertension.Results: Both GRPS and GLPS deteriorated significantly from controls, through HTN(T2DM-), to HTN(T2DM+) group; GCPS in HTN(T2DM+) group was lower than those in both HTN(T2DM-) and control groups. Compared with controls, HTN(T2DM-) group showed higher myocardial perfusion, and HTN(T2DM+) group exhibited lower perfusion than HTN(T2DM-) group and controls. Multiple regression analyses considering covariates of systolic blood pressure, age, sex, BMI, heart rate, smoking, indexed LV mass and eGFR demonstrated that T2DM was independently associated with LV strains (GRPS: p=0.002, model R2=0.383; GCPS: p<0.001, model R2=0.472; and GLPS: p=0.002, model R2=0.424, respectively) and perfusion indices (upslope: p<0.001, model R2=0.293; TTM: p<0.001, model R2=0.299; and MaxSI: p<0.001, model R2=0.268, respectively) in hypertension. When both T2DM and perfusion indices were included in the regression analyses, both T2DM and TTM were independently associated with GRPS (p=0.044 and 0.017, model R2=0.390) and GCPS (p=0.002 and 0.001, model R2=0.424), and TTM but not perfusion indices was independently associated with GLPS (p=0.002, model R2=0.424). Conclusion: In patients with hypertension, T2DM had an additive deleterious effect on subclinical LV systolic dysfunction and myocardial perfusion, and impaired myocardial perfusion by coexisting T2DM was associated with deteriorated LV systolic dysfunction.