On the Asserted Antagonism between Nicotin and Strychnia

Francis L. Haynes
1877 Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Haynes.] [March 16, Kentucky, January 25, states that "about 4 o'clock on the evening of the 23d, a heavy rumbling sound was heard, as if coming from a South-easterly direction, and from a point high in the heavens. The report was likened by some to the discharging of numbers of heavy ordnance, the different discharges barely distinguishable. The concussion was sufficient to rattle the glass in the windows, and also to jar the earth quite perceptibly. The course of the sound appeared to be from a point South South-east" of the writer's place of observation. The final explosion took place over Harrison County, Kentucky, and the serolite reached the earth nine miles North of Cynthiana. It is now in the collection of Dr. J. Lawrence Smith, of Louisville. The points from which this meteor was observed in Decatur and Monroe Counties are nearly on the same parallel; the latitude of the former being about 390 27', that of the latter 390 21'. The distance between the stations is 56 miles, and the entire track, as seen from Decatur County, was East of the meridian. The observations in Monroe County indicate that the height of the meteor when first seen was at least 70 miles. VIII. THE METEOR OF FEBRUARY 8, 1877. About half past 2 o'clock on Thursday morning, February 8th, 1877, a large meteor was seen by J. S. Hunter, Esq., near Ellettsville, Monroe County, Indiana. The apparent magnitude of the body seemed equal to half that of the full moon, and the sudden light was so intense as to frighten the horse of the observer. The meteor was first seen in the South-east, crossed the meridian South of the zenith, and disappeared at a point about 300 or 350 South of West, and 10? above the horizon. Numerous sparks were emitted by the body in the latter part of its track, and a luminous train remained visible several seconds. No explosion was heard. HISTORY. IIaughton's Experiments. The Rev. Prof. Haughton, in a communication read before the Royal Irish Academy, in Nov. 1856, was the first to call attention to the subject under consideration. He related the details of the following experiments on frogs: 1. A frog was placed in a bath composed of five ounces of water and five grains of nicotin. It died in twentythree minutes. 2. A frog was placed in a batli of twenty ounces of water Haynes.] 596 [March 16, Kentucky, January 25, states that "about 4 o'clock on the evening of the 23d, a heavy rumbling sound was heard, as if coming from a South-easterly direction, and from a point high in the heavens. The report was likened by some to the discharging of numbers of heavy ordnance, the different discharges barely distinguishable. The concussion was sufficient to rattle the glass in the windows, and also to jar the earth quite perceptibly. The course of the sound appeared to be from a point South South-east" of the writer's place of observation. The final explosion took place over Harrison County, Kentucky, and the serolite reached the earth nine miles North of Cynthiana. It is now in the collection of Dr. J. Lawrence Smith, of Louisville. The points from which this meteor was observed in Decatur and Monroe Counties are nearly on the same parallel; the latitude of the former being about 390 27', that of the latter 390 21'. The distance between the stations is 56 miles, and the entire track, as seen from Decatur County, was East of the meridian. The observations in Monroe County indicate that the height of the meteor when first seen was at least 70 miles. VIII. THE METEOR OF FEBRUARY 8, 1877. About half past 2 o'clock on Thursday morning, February 8th, 1877, a large meteor was seen by J. S. Hunter, Esq., near Ellettsville, Monroe County, Indiana. The apparent magnitude of the body seemed equal to half that of the full moon, and the sudden light was so intense as to frighten the horse of the observer. The meteor was first seen in the South-east, crossed the meridian South of the zenith, and disappeared at a point about 300 or 350 South of West, and 10? above the horizon. Numerous sparks were emitted by the body in the latter part of its track, and a luminous train remained visible several seconds. No explosion was heard. HISTORY. IIaughton's Experiments. The Rev. Prof. Haughton, in a communication read before the Royal Irish Academy, in Nov. 1856, was the first to call attention to the subject under consideration. He related the details of the following experiments on frogs: 1. A frog was placed in a bath composed of five ounces of water and five grains of nicotin. It died in twentythree minutes. 2. A frog was placed in a batli of twenty ounces of water 1877.] 597 [Haynes. and five grains of nicotin. It died in forty-three minutes, with peculiar convulsions. 3. A frog, placed in a solution of strychnia (five grains to five ounces of water), was immediately seized with tetanic convulsions, and died in four minutes. 4. A frog, placed in a solution of strychnia (five grains to twenty ounces of water), became speedily convulsed, and died in fifty-five minutes. 5. A frog, placed in a bath containing nicotin and strychnia (of each five grains to ten ounces of water), remained there nineteen minutes without any inconvenience, when it was seized with tetanic convulsions, which continued, but with less violence than in the previous experiments. After forty-seven minutes, the animal was removed, and washed in cold water. It lived afterwards more than twenty-four hours, exhibiting at intervals tetanic convulsions. 6. A frog was placed in a bath of nicotin and strychnia, as in the last experiment, and removed after ten minutes. In forty-two minutes, tetanic convulsions appeared, and continued for many hours, but they were succeeded by perfect recovery. Wormley's Experiments. To each of thirteen cats, one-half grain of strychnia was given. "The poison was passed in solution into the stomach, by means of the stomach-tube. In some instances, as soon as symptoms of poisoning appeared, an infusion of twenty grains of tobacco leaves was administered, in the same manner as the poison ; while, in others, the tobacco infusion was given along with the strychnia, the two infusions being thoroughly mixed. In some few cases, the dose of tobacco was repeated. As the result of these experiments, one of the animals, which had taken the mixed solutions, immediately fell prostrate, breathed with difficulty, in three minutes voided urine, in eight minutes vomited a frothy mucus, and in ten minutes was able to run, with, however, a stiff gait. After an hour, the animal appeared perfectly well, with the exception of a slight stiffness in walking. With this single exception, all the animals died, and, in most instances, within the usual period. One of them, however, that had taken the mixed solutions, manifested no symptom whatever, for thirty-five minutes. In some instances, the strychnine symptoms appeared to be not in the least affected by the tobacco. But, in others, they were of a compound nature. Several of the animals vomited. Before performing these experiments, it was ascertained that an infusion of twenty grains of tobacco, given alone, would produce serious symptoms; but, in no instance, in six experiments, did it cause death."--Micro-Chemistry of Poisonis, New , New York, 1865, p. 545.) Reese's Experiments were made on dogs. The drugs were, as a rule, given by the mouth. 1. Three-fourths of a grain of strychnia, hypodermically, killed a moderate sized dog, in nine and one-half minutes. 2. Three-fourths of a grain of strychnia, and two drachms of a concentrated infusion of tobacco, were given by the mouth. Twenty-six minutes, tetanic spasms; thirty-one minutes, non-tetanic spasm; thirty-three minutes, somewhat tetanic spasm; thirty-nine minutes, one-half drachm of infusion of tobacco was given hypodermically, and was immediately followed by a tetanic spasm, and death. 3. Two drachms of tobacco infusion. Five minutes, free PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XVI. 99. 3w 1H77.] 613 [Haynes. Pupils contracted; nictitating membrane drawn over the cornea. 35 seconds, lie staggered a few steps, fell on the side, and in 1 mnin. was seized with powerful tetanic convulsions, which terminated life at 4 min. EXPERIMENT 125. A dog, weighing 7 lbs., received Strychnia Sulph. gr. 1-32, with Nicotin mlT-200. 1 min., labored respiration. 7 min., slight convulsion. 72 main., Nicotin T1l1-200 given. 8 mlin., respiration labored and noisy. 9 min., tetanic convulsion. 10lmin., Nicotin 1-200 given. 14 ain., tetanic convulsion, and death.
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