New Scavenger Receptor-Like Receptors for the Binding of Lipopolysaccharide to Liver Endothelial and Kupffer Cells
Infection and Immunity
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is cleared from the blood mainly by the liver. The Kupffer cells are primarily responsible for this clearance; liver endothelial and parenchymal cells contribute to a lesser extent. Although several binding sites have been described, only CD14 is known to be involved in LPS signalling. Among the other LPS binding sites that have been identified are scavenger receptors. Scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) types I and II are expressed in the liver on endothelial cells and
... thelial cells and Kupffer cells, and a 95-kDa receptor, identified as macrosialin, is expressed on Kupffer cells. In this study, we examined the role of scavenger receptors in the binding of LPS by the liver in vivo and in vitro. Fucoidin, a scavenger receptor ligand, significantly reduced the clearance of 125I-LPS from the serum and decreased the liver uptake of 125I-LPS about 40%. Within the liver, the in vivo binding of 125I-LPS to Kupffer and liver endothelial cells was decreased 72 and 71%, respectively, while the binding of 125I-LPS to liver parenchymal cells increased 34% upon fucoidin preinjection. Poly(I) inhibited the binding of 125I-LPS to Kupffer and endothelial cells in vitro 73 and 78%, respectively, while poly(A) had no effect. LPS inhibited the binding of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) to Kupffer and liver endothelial cells 40 and 55%, respectively, and the binding of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) to Kupffer and liver endothelial cells 65 and 61%, respectively. oxLDL and acLDL did not significantly inhibit the binding of LPS to these cells. We conclude that on both endothelial cells and Kupffer cells, LPS binds mainly to scavenger receptors, but SR-A and macrosialin contribute to a limited extent to the binding of LPS.