Influência da aplicação de vinhaça na condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado e no escoamento superficial
The production of alcohol used as fuel is increasing every year due to the need to replace the sources of fossil fuels, which is finite, and on the other hand alcohol is a renewable energy source. But the production of this fuel generates large quantities of waste and the vinasse draws most attention by its high value as fertilizer, primarily by the amount of potassium. The potassium ion due to a monovalent feature is to promote the dispersion of the clay particles as well as sodium, clogged
... sodium, clogged the pores of the soil by decreasing the permeability, may cause flooding and increase runoff. For evaluating the dispersive effect of vinasse on the soil were implemented two experiments: Experiment I aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of vinasse in saturated hydraulic conductivity, and Experiment II, which evaluated different doses of vinasse in runoff. In Experiment I were used PVC columns filled with 3 kinds of soils (Dark Red Latosol -LVE, Dusky Red Latosol-LR and Rhodic Kandiustalf -NVE), and applied four doses of vinasse (0, 150, 300 and 450 m 3 ha -1 ), in a completely randomized design in a 3x4 factorial design with three replications. In this experiment we used a constant load permeameter to obtain the hydraulic conductivity of saturated soil. In the second experiment was mounted in a structure belonging to the Department of Rural Engineering (ESALQ / USP) for evaluation of runoff in a Rhodic Kandiustalf. The experimental design used in this experiment was a randomized block design in a 3x3 factorial with three blocks, and these factors were: 3 varieties of sugarcane (IAC87-3396, SP81-3250 and RB86-7515) and 3 doses of vinasse (150 , 300 and 450 m 3 ha -1 ). The parameteres evaluated were the loss of water and soil, loss of potassium and total dissolved solids (TDS). Results obtained showed that the soil LVE with increasing doses of vinasse also decreased the values of hydraulic conductivity, and for the LR soil and NVE values of this parameter increased with increased doses. In the runoff no significant effect on the factors under study, showing that the doses did not contribute to the increase in runoff as was supposed.