Prevalence and Trends of Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican Adults: Data of the National Health and Nutrition Surveys 2006 and 2016
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetSx) is a group of risk factors interconnected with cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, major morbidity and mortality causes globally and in Mexico. More than a thousand million individuals in the world were found with MetSx in 2018, and the last national investigation in Mexico on this condition carried out in 2006 registered a prevalence of 49.8% in adults. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of MetSx in Mexican adults, the degree of
... the degree of association with risk factors, and its trends in the period 2006 to 2016. Methods: We gathered and analyzed sociodemographic, clinical, dietary, and physical activity data from 8,626 adults aged ≥20 years who participated in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey Mid-way 2016 (ENSANUT MC-2016). To define MetSx, we used the harmonized diagnosis criteria as the main instrument. Other classification systems were also used to complement our analysis. To identify the prevalence trends of MetSx, we compared information of ENSANUT-2006 with that of ENSANUT-2016.Results: The prevalence of MetSx in Mexican adults was of 60.5% (57.9% in men and 63.2% in women). The proportion of subjects with a least one MetSx component was of 95.3% and with at least two components was of 21.3%. The most frequent combination of three MetSx components was the cluster of abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia (16%). In comparison with the MetSx prevalence reported in ENSANUT-2006, the prevalence of this condition in ENSANUT-2016 increased 15.3%.Conclusions: A high prevalence of MetSx was registered in Mexico in 2016, and an increased trend of this condition during the period 2006 to 2016 was observed. This study shows the necessity to improve prevention and diagnosis programs for MetSx and its components, as well as the need to adopt a healthy lifestyle in the highest risk population in order to achieve corrections and reductions in associated susceptible risk factors.