User Acceptance Factors for Anonymous Credentials: An Empirical Investigation
Workshop on the Economics of Information Security
We describe theoretical development of a user acceptance model for anonymous credentials and its evaluation in a real-world trial. Although anonymous credentials and other advanced privacy-enhanced technologies (PETs) reached technical maturity, they are not widely adopted so far, such that understanding user adoption factors is one of the most important goals on the way to better privacy management with the help of PETs. Our model integrates the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with the
... erations that are specific for security-and privacy-enhancing technologies, in particular, with their "secondary goal" property that means that these technologies are expected to work in the background, facilitating the execution of users' primary, functional goals. We introduce five new constructs into the TAM: Perceived Usefulness for the Primary Task (PU1), Perceived Usefulness for the Secondary Task (PU2), Situation Awareness, Perceived Anonymity and Understanding of the PET. We conduct an evaluation of our model in the concrete scenario of a university course evaluation. Although the sample size (30 participants) is prohibitively small for deeper statistical analysis such as multiple regressions or structural equation modeling, we are still able to derive useful conclusions from the correlation analysis of the constructs in our model. Especially, PU1 is the most important factor of user adoption, outweighing the usability and the usefulness of the deployed PET (PU2). Moreover, correct Understanding of the underlying PET seems to play a much less important role than a user interface of the system that clearly conveys to the user which data are transmitted when and to which party (Situation Awareness).